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Agaliha
June 24th, 2008, 02:11 AM
III. MAHĀVAGGA.




1. PABBAGGĀSUTTA.



King Bimbisāra feeling interested in Buddha tries to tempt him with wealth, but is mildly rebuked by Buddha.
1. I will praise an ascetic life such as the clearly-seeing (Buddha) led, such as he thinking (over it) approved of as an ascetic life. (404)

2. ' This house-life is pain, the seat of impurity,' and 'an ascetic life is an open-air life,' so considering he embraced an ascetic life. (405)

3. Leading an ascetic life, he avoided with his body sinful deeds, and having (also) abandoned sin in words, he cleansed his life. (406)

4. Buddha went to Rāgagaha, he entered the Giribbaga in Magadha for alms with a profusion of excellent signs. (407)

5. Bimbisāra standing in his palace saw him, and seeing him endowed with these signs, he spoke these words: (408)

6. 'Attend ye to this man, he is handsome, great, clean, he is both endowed with good conduct, and he does not look before him further than a yuga (the distance of a plough). (409)

7. 'With downcast eyes, thoughtful, this one is not like those of low caste; let the king's messengers run off, (and ask): "Where is the Bhikkhu going?"' (410)

8. The king's messengers followed after (him, and

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said): 'Where is the Bhikkhu going, where will he reside? (411)

9. 'Going begging from house to house, watching the door (of the senses), well restrained, he quickly filled his bowl, conscious, thoughtful. (412)

10. 'Wandering about in search of alms, having gone out of town, the Muni repaired to (the mountain) Pandava; it must be there he lives.' (413)

11. Seeing that he had entered his dwelling, the messengers then sat down, and one messenger having returned announced it to the king. (414)

12. 'This Bhikkhu, O great king, is sitting on the east side of Pandava, like a tiger, like a bull, like a lion in a mountain cave.' (415)

13. Having heard the messenger's words, the Khattiya in a fine chariot hastening went out to the Pandava mountain. (416)

14. Having gone as far as the ground was practicable for a chariot, the Khattiya, after alighting from the chariot, and approaching on foot, having come up (to him), seated himself. (417)

15. Having sat down the king then exchanged the usual ceremonious greetings with him, and after the complimentary talk he spoke these words: (418)

16. 'Thou art both young and delicate, a lad in his first youth, possessed of a fine complexion, like a high-born Khattiya. (419)

17. 'I will ornament the army-house, and at the head of the assembly of chiefs (nāga) give (thee) wealth; enjoy it and tell me thy birth, when asked.' (420)

18. Buddha: 'Just beside Himavanta, O king, there lives a people endowed with the power of wealth, the inhabitants of Kosala. (421)

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19. 'They are Ādikkas by family, Sākiyas by birth; from that family I have wandered out, not longing for sensual pleasures. (422)

20. 'Seeing misery in sensual pleasures, and considering the forsaking of the world as happiness, I will go and exert myself; in this my mind delights.' (423)

Pabbaggāsutta is ended.


2. PADHĀNASUTTA.



Māra tries to tempt Buddha, but disappointed is obliged to withdraw. Comp. Gospel of S. Matthew iv (http://sacred-texts.com/bib/kjv/mat.htm#4:1).
1. To me, whose mind was intent upon exertion near the river Nerańgarā, having exerted myself, and given myself to meditation for the sake of acquiring Nibbāna (yogakkhema), (424)

2. Came Namuki speaking words full of compassion: 'Thou art lean, ill-favoured, death is in thy neighbourhood. (425)

3. 'A thousandth part of thee (is the property) of death, (only) one part (belongs to) life; living life, O thou venerable one, is better; living thou wilt be able to do good works[1]. (426)

4. 'When thou livest a religious life, and feedest the sacrificial fire, manifold good works are woven to thee; what dost thou want with exertion? (427)

5. 'Difficult is the way of exertion, difficult to pass, difficult to enter upon;' saying these verses Māra stood near Buddha. (428)

[1. Sahassabhāgo maranassa,
Ekamso tava gīvitam,
Gīvam bho gīvitam seyyo,
Gīvam puńńāni kāhasi.]

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6. To Māra thus speaking Bhagavat said this: 'O thou friend of the indolent, thou wicked one, for what purpose hast thou come here? (429)

7. 'Even the least good work is of no use to me; and what good works are required, Māra ought to tell. (430)

8. 'I have faith and power, and understanding is found in me; while thus exerting myself, why do you ask me to live[1]? (431)

9. 'This (burning) wind will dry up even the currents of the rivers; should it not by degrees dry up my blood, while I am exerting myself? (432)

10. 'While the blood is drying up, the bile and the phlegm are dried up; while the flesh is wasting away, the mind gets more tranquil, and my attention, understanding, and meditation get more steadfast[2]. (433)

11. 'While I am living thus, after having felt the extreme sensations, my mind does not look for sensual pleasures; behold a being's purity. (434)

12. 'Lust thy first army is called, discontent thy second, thy third is called hunger and thirst, thy fourth desire. (435)

13. 'Thy fifth is called sloth and drowsiness, thy sixth cowardice, thy seventh doubt, thy eighth hypocrisy and stupor, (436)

14. 'Gain, fame, honour, and what celebrity has

[1. Evam mam pahitattam pi
Kim gīvam anupukkhasi.

2. Lohite sussamānamhi
Pittam semhań ka sussati,
Mamsesu khīyamānesu
Bhiyyo kittam pasīdati
Bhiyyo sati ka pańńā ka
Samādhi mama titthati.]

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been falsely obtained; and he who exalts himself and despises others[1]. (437)

15. 'This, O Namuki, is thine, the black one's, fighting army; none but a hero conquers it, and after conquering it obtains joy. (438)

16. 'Woe upon life in this world! death in battle is better for me than that I should live defeated. (439)

17. 'Plunged into this world some Samanas and Brāmanas are not seen, and they do not know the way in which the virtuous walk. (440)

18. 'Seeing on all sides an army arrayed, and Māra on his elephant, I am going out to do battle, that he may not drive me away from my place. (441)

19. 'This army of thine, which the world of men and gods cannot conquer, I will crush with understanding as (one crushes) an unbaked earthen pot with a stone[2]. (442)

20. 'Having made my thought subject to me and my attention firm, I shall wander about from kingdom to kingdom, training disciples extensively. (443)

21. 'They (will be) zealous and energetic, executing my orders, (the orders) of one free from lust, and they will go (to the place) where, having gone, they will not mourn.' (444)

22. Māra: 'For seven years I followed Bhagavat step by step; I found no fault in the perfectly enlightened, thoughtful (Buddha). (445)

[1. Yo k' attānam samukkamse
Pare ka avagānati.

2. Yam te tam na-ppasahati
Senam loko sadevako
Tam te pańńāya gakkhāmi

Āmam pattam va amhanā.

*. Instead of gakkhāmi I read bhańgāmi. Ba has vekkhāpi, Bi vegghāmi.]

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23. 'The crow hovered round the rock that looked like (a lump of) fat: "Do we here find something soft, is it something sweet?" (446)

24. 'Having obtained nothing sweet there, the crow went away from that spot. Thus like the crow approaching the rock, being disgusted, we shall go away from Gotama[1].' (447)

25. While overcome with sorrow the string of his lute slipped down; then that evil-minded Yakkha disappeared there. (448)

Padhānasutta is ended.


3. SUBHĀSITASUTTA.



On well-spoken language.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Sāvatthī in Getavana. Bhagavat said this: 'O Bhikkhus, the speech that is provided with four requisites is well-spoken, not ill-spoken, both faultless and blameless to the wise.'

'Which four?'

'O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu speaks well-spoken (language), not ill-spoken; he speaks what is right (dhamma), not what is unrighteous (adhamma); he speaks what is pleasing, not what is unpleasing; he speaks what is true, not what is false. O Bhikkhus, the speech that is provided with these four requisites, is well-spoken, not ill-spoken, both faultless

[1. Kāko va selam āsagga
.
Nibbiggāpema Gotamam[+].

*. Cb Ck āvagga, Ba assagga, Bi āssagga.

+. Instead of Gotamam I read Gotamā.]

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and blameless to the wise.' This said Bhagavat. When Sugata had said this, then the Master spoke the following:

1. 'Well-spoken language the just call the principal (thing); let one speak what is right (dhamma), not what is unrighteous (adhamma), that is the second; let one speak what is pleasing, not what is unpleasing, that is the third; let one speak what is true, not what is false, that is the fourth.' (449)

Then the venerable Vangīsa, rising from his seat, throwing his robe over one shoulder and bending his joined hands towards Bhagavat, said this: 'It occurs to me, O Sugata!'

'Let it occur to thee, O Vangīsa!' said Bhagavat.

Then the venerable Vangīsa, standing before Bhagavat, praised him with appropriate stanzas:

2. 'Let one say such words by which he does not pain himself, nor hurt others; such words are truly well-spoken. (450)

3. 'Let one speak pleasing words which are received joyfully (by all), and which (saying) he, without committing sins, speaks what is pleasing to others. (451)

4. 'Truth verily is immortal speech, this is a true saying; in what is true, in what is good, and in what is right, the just stand firm, so they say. (452)

5. 'The words which Buddha speaks, which are sure to bring about extinction and put an end to pain, such (words) are truly the best.' (453)

Subhāsitasutta is ended.

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4. SUNDARIKABHĀRADVĀGASUTTA.



Buddha shows to Sundarikabhāradvāga on whom to bestow oblations, and the Brāmana is finally converted.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt in Kosala on the bank of the river Sundarikā. And during that time the Brāmana Sundarikabhāradvāga made offerings to the fire and worshipped the fire. Then the Brāmana Sundarikabhāradvāga, having made offerings to the fire and worshipped the fire, and having risen from his seat, looked about him on all sides towards the four quarters of the globe, saying: 'Who is to enjoy the rest of this oblation?' The Brāmana Sundarikabhāradvāga saw Bhagavat sitting not far off at the root of a tree, wrapped up head and body; and seeing him he, after taking the rest of the oblation with his left hand and the waterpot with his right hand, went up to Bhagavat. Then Bhagavat, on hearing the footsteps of Sundarikabhāradvāga, the Brāmana, uncovered his head. Then the Brāhmana Sundarikabhāradvāga thought: 'This man is shaved, this man is a shaveling,' and he wished to return again from there. Then this came to the mind of Sundarikabhāradvāga, the Brāmana: 'Some Brāmanas also here are shaved, I think I shall go up and ask him about his descent.' Then the Brāhmana Sundarikabhāradvāga went up to Bhagavat, and having gone up he said this: 'Of what family art thou?'

Then Bhagavat answered Sundarikabhāradvāga, the Brāmana, in stanzas:

1. 'No Brāmana am I, nor a king's son, nor any

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Vessa; having thoroughly observed the class of common people, I wander about the world reflectingly, possessing nothing. (454)

2. 'Dressed in a sanghāti[1] and houseless I wander about, with my hair cut off, calm, not intermixing with people in this world. Thou askest me an unseasonable question about (my) family, O Brāhmana!' (455)

3. Sundarikabhāradvāga: 'Sir, Brāmanas together with Brāmanas ask truly, Art thou a Brāhmana?'

Bhagavat: 'If thou sayest, I am a Brāmana, and callest me no Brāmana, then I ask thee about the Sāvitti that consists of three padas and twenty-four syllables[2].' (456)

4. Sundarikabhāradvāga: 'For what (reason) did the Isis, men, Khattiyas, Brāmanas make offerings to the gods abundantly in this world?'

Bhagavat: 'He who, perfect and accomplished at the time of offering, obtains the ear of one or the other (god), he will succeed, so I say.' (457)

5. 'Surely his offering will bear fruit,'--so said the Brāmana,--'because we saw such an accomplished man; for by not seeing such as you, somebody else will enjoy the oblation.' (458)

6. Bhagavat: 'Therefore, O Brāmana, as you have come here to ask for something, ask; perhaps thou mightest here find one that is calm, without anger, free from pain, free from desire, one with a good understanding.' (459)

[1. See Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 166.

2. Tam Sāvittim pukkhāmi
Tipadam katuvīsatakkharam.
(Rig-veda III, 62, 10.)]

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7. Sundarikabhāradvāga: 'I delight in offering, O Gotama, I desire to make an offering, but I do not understand it; do thou instruct me, tell me in what case the offering succeeds.' (460)

8. Bhagavat: 'Therefore, O Brāmana, lend me thy ear, I will teach thee the Dhamma. (461)

9. 'Do not ask about descent, but ask about conduct; from wood, it is true, fire is born; (likewise) a firm Muni, although belonging to a low family, may become noble, when restrained (from sinning) by humility. (462)

10. 'He who is subdued by truth, endowed with temperance, accomplished, leading a religious life, on such a one in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good works in view, offer. (463)

11. 'Those who, after leaving sensual pleasures, wander about houseless, well restrained, being like a straight shuttle, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good works in view, offer. (464)

12. 'Those whose passions are gone, whose senses are well composed, who are liberated like the moon out of the grasp of Rāhu, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good works in view, offer. (465)

13. 'Those who wander about in the world without clinging (to anything), always thoughtful, having left selfishness, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good works in view, offer. (466)

14. 'He who, after leaving sensual pleasures, wanders about victorious, he who knows the end of birth and death, who is perfectly happy (parinibbuta),

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calm like a deep water, Tathāgata deserves the oblation. (467)

15. 'Just with the just and far from the unjust[1], Tathāgata is possessed of infinite understanding; undefiled both in this world and in the other, Tathāgata deserves the oblation. (468)

16. 'He in whom there lives no deceit, no arrogance, he who is free from cupidity, free from selfishness, free from desire, who has banished anger, who is calm, the Brāmana who has removed the taint of grief, Tathāgata deserves the oblation. (469)

17. 'He who has banished (every) resting-place of the mind, he for whom there is no grasping, he who covets nothing either in this world or in the other, Tathāgata deserves the oblation[2]. (470)

18. 'He who is composed, who has crossed over the stream (of existence) and knows the Dhamma by (taking) the highest view (of it), he whose passions are destroyed, who is wearing the last body, Tathāgata deserves the oblation. (471)

19. 'He whose passion for existence and whose harsh talk are destroyed, are perished, (and therefore) exist not, he the accomplished and in every respect liberated Tathāgata deserves the oblation. (472)

20. 'He who has shaken off all ties, for whom there are no ties, who amongst arrogant beings is free from arrogance, having penetrated pain together with its domain and subject, Tathāgata deserves the oblation. (473)

21. 'He who, without giving himself up to desire, sees seclusion (i.e. Nibbāna), who has overcome the view that is to be taught by others, to whom there

[1. Samo samehi visamehi dūre.

2. Comp. Dhp. v. 20 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1003.htm#pp_20).]

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are no objects of sense whatever, Tathāgata deserves the oblation[1]. (474)

22. 'He to whom all Dhammas of every description, after he has penetrated them, are destroyed, are perished, (and therefore) exist not, he who is calm, liberated in the destruction of attachment (i.e. Nibbāna), Tathāgata deserves the oblation. (475)

23. 'He who sees the destruction of bond and birth, who has totally evaded the path of passion, (who is) pure, faultless, spotless, undepraved, Tathāgata deserves the oblation. (476)

24. 'He who does not measure himself by himself, who is composed, upright, firm, without desire, free from harshness (akhila), free from doubt, Tathāgata deserves the oblation. (477)

25. 'He to whom there is no cause of folly, who has a supernatural insight in all Dhammas, who wears the last body, and who has acquired perfect enlightenment, the highest, the blessed, (for him) thus a Yakkha's purification (takes place)[2].' (478)

26. Sundarikabhāradvāga: 'May my offering be a true offering, because I met with such a one out of the accomplished; Brahman is my witness, may Bhagavat accept me, may Bhagavat enjoy my oblation.' (479)

27. Bhagavat: 'What is obtained by stanzas is not to be enjoyed by me, this is not the custom of the clearly-seeing, O Brāmana; Buddhas reject what is obtained by stanzas. While the Dhamma

[1. Āsam anissāya vivekadassī
Paravediyam
ditthim upātivatto
Ārammanā yassa na santi keki, &c.

2. Comp. Kalahavivādasutta, v. 14 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1036.htm#pp_875).

*. Paravediyan ti parehi ńāpetabbam. Commentator.]

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exists, O Brāmana, this is the practice (of the Buddhas). (480)

28. 'With other food and drink must thou serve one that is perfect, a great Isi, whose passions are destroyed, and whose misbehaviour has ceased, for this is a field for one who looks for good works[1].' (481)

29. Sundarikabhāradvāga: 'Good, O Bhagavat, then I should like to know, who will enjoy a gift from one like me, and whom I shall seek at the time of sacrifice (as one worthy of offerings) after having accepted thy doctrine.' (482)

30. Bhagavat: 'Whosoever has no quarrels, whose mind is untroubled, and who has freed himself from lusts, whose sloth is driven away, (483)

31. 'Whosoever conquers his sins, knows birth and death, the Muni who is endowed with wisdom[2], such a one who has resorted to offering, (484)

32. 'Him you should worship and honour with food and drink; so the gifts will prosper.' (485)

33. Sundarikabhāradvāga: 'Thou Buddha deservest the oblation, (thou art) the best field for good works, the object of offering to all the world; what is given to thee will bear great fruit.' (486)

Then the Brāmana Sundarikabhāradvāga said this to Bhagavat: 'It is excellent, O venerable Gotama! It is excellent, O venerable Gotama! As one raises what has been overthrown, or reveals what has been hidden, or tells the way to him who has gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark that those who have eyes may see the objects, even so by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the Dhamma has been illustrated; I take refuge in

[1. Comp. Kasibhāradvāgsutta, v. 7 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1033.htm#pp_81).

2. Moneyyasampannam = pańńāsampannam. Commentator.]

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the venerable Gotama, in the Dhamma, and in the Assembly of Bhikkhus; I wish to receive the robe and the orders from the venerable Gotama.'

The Brāmana Sundarikabhāradvāga received the pabbaggā from Bhagavat, and he received also the upasampadā; and the venerable Bhāradvāga, having lately received the upasampadā, leading a solitary, retired, strenuous, ardent, energetic life, lived after having in a short time in this existence by his own understanding ascertained and possessed himself of that highest perfection of a religious life for the sake of which men of good family rightly wander away from their houses to a houseless state. 'Birth had been destroyed, a religious life had been led, what was to be done had been done, there was nothing else (to be done) for this existence,' so he perceived, and the venerable Bhāradvāga became one of the arahats.

Sundarikabhāradvāgasutta is ended.


5. MĀGHASUTTA.



Buddha on being asked tells Māgha of those worthy of offerings and the blessing of offering.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Rāgagaha, in the mountain (called) the Vulture's Peak (Gigghakūta).

Then the young man Māgha went to Bhagavat, and having gone to him he talked pleasantly with him, and after having had some pleasant, remarkable conversation with him he sat down apart; sitting down apart the young man Māgha spoke this to Bhagavat:

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'O venerable Gotama, I am a liberal giver, bountiful, suitable to beg of; justly I seek for riches, and having sought for riches justly, I give out of the justly obtained and justly acquired riches to one, to two, to three, to four, to five, to six, to seven, to eight, to nine, to ten, to twenty, to thirty, to forty, to fifty, to a hundred, I give still more. (I should like to know), O venerable Gotama, whether I, while so giving, so offering, produce much good.'

'Certainly, O young man, dost thou in so offering produce much good; he, O young man, who is a liberal giver, bountiful, suitable to beg of, and who justly seeks for riches, and having sought for riches justly, gives out of his justly obtained and justly acquired riches to one, to two, to three, to four, to five, to six, to seven, to eight, to nine, to ten, to twenty, to thirty, to forty, to fifty, to a hundred, and gives still more, produces much good.'

Then the young man Māgha addressed Bhagavat in stanzas:

1. 'I ask the venerable Gotama, the bountiful,'--so said the young man Māgha,--'wearing the yellow robe, wandering about houseless:' 'He who is a householder, suitable to beg of, a donor, who, desirous of good, offers having what is good in view, and giving to others in this world food and drink,--where (i.e. on whom bestowed) will the oblation of such an offerer prosper?' (487)

2. 'He who is a householder, suitable to beg of, a donor, O Māgha,'--so said Bhagavat,--'who, desirous of good, offers having what is good in view, and giving to others in this world food and drink, such a one will prosper with those worthy of offerings.' (488)

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3. 'He who is a householder, suitable to beg of, a donor,'--so said the young man,--'who, desirous of good, offers having what is good in view, and giving to others in this world food and drink,--tell me (I being such a one), O Bhagavat, of those worthy of offerings.' (489)

4. Bhagavat: 'Those indeed who wander about in the world without clinging to anything and without possessing anything, perfect, self-restrained, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāhmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (490)

5. 'Those who have cut through all bonds and fetters, who are subdued, liberated, free from pain, and free from desire, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (491)

6. 'Those who are released from all bonds, who are subdued, liberated, free from pain, and free from desire on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (492)

7. 'Those who, having forsaken both passion and hatred and folly, have destroyed their desires and lead a religious life, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāhmana who has good (works) in view, offer[1]. (493)

8. 'Those in whom there lives no deceit, no arrogance, who are free from cupidity, free from selfishness, free from desire, on such in due time people should bestew oblations; let the Brāmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (494)

9. 'Those indeed who without being lost in desire,

[1. Comp. Dhp. v. 20 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1003.htm#pp_20).]

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after crossing the stream (of existence), wander about free from selfishness, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (495)

10. 'Those in whom there is no desire for anything in the world, nor for existence after existence here or in the other world, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (496)

11. 'Those who, after leaving sensual pleasures, wander about houseless, well restrained, being like a straight shuttle, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (497)

12. 'Those whose passions are gone, whose senses are well composed, who are liberated like the moon out of the grasp of Rāhu, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāhmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (498)

13. 'Those who are calm, whose passions are gone, who are without anger, and for whom there is no transmigration after having left here, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāhmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (499)

14. 'Those who, after leaving birth and death altogether, have conquered all doubt, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (500)

15. 'Those who wander about in the world with themselves for a light, not possessed of anything, in every respect liberated, on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (501)

16. 'Those who in this world rightly understand

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this: "This is the last (birth), there is no re-birth," on such in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāmana who has good (works) in view, offer. (502)

17. 'He who is accomplished, and delights in meditation, thoughtful, possessed of thorough enlightenment, a refuge for many, on such a one in due time people should bestow oblations; let the Brāhmana who has good (works) in view, offer.' (503)

18. 'Certainly my question was not in vain, Bhagavat has told me of those worthy of offerings; for thou truly knowest this in this world, as surely to thee this Dhamma is known. (504)

19. 'He who is a householder, suitable to beg of, a donor,'--so said the young man Māgha,--'who, desirous of good, offers having what is good in view, and giving to others in this world food and drink,--tell me (I being such a one), O Bhagavat, of the blessing of offering.' (505)

20. 'Offer, O Māgha,'--so said Bhagavat,--'and while offering make calm thy mind in all things; the object of the one that offers is the oblation, standing fast in this he leaves hatred behind. (506)

21. 'Such a one whose passion is gone will repress hatred, cultivating an unbounded friendly mind; continually strenuous night and day he will spread infinite goodness through all regions.' (507)

22. Māgha: 'Who prospers? who is liberated and who is bound? In which way can one by himself go to Brahmaloka? Tell this to me who does not know, O Muni, when asked. Bhagavat is indeed my witness that Brahman is seen by me to-day, for thou art to us equal to Brahman, this is the truth; how can one attain Brahmaloka, O thou glorious one?' (508)

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23. 'He who offers the threefold blessing of oblation, O Māgha,'--so said Bhagavat,--'such a one will prosper with those worthy of offerings; so, having offered properly, he who is suitable to beg of attains Brahmaloka, so I say.' (509)

This having been said, Māgha the young man spoke as follows to Bhagavat: 'Excellent, O venerable Gotama! Excellent, O venerable Gotama! As one raises what has been overthrown, or reveals what has been hidden, or tells the way to him who has gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark that those who have eyes may see the objects, even so by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the Dhamma has been illustrated; I take refuge in the venerable Gotama and in the Dhamma and in the Assembly of Bhikkhus. Let the venerable Gotama accept me as an upāsaka (a follower, me), who henceforth for all my life have taken refuge (in him).'

Māghasutta is ended.


6. SABHIYASUTTA.



Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, goes to the six famous teachers of his time to have his questions answered, but not having his doubts solved, he repairs to Gotama and asks him how one is to behave to become a Brāmana, a Samana, a Nahātaka, a Khettagina, a Kusala, a Pandita, a Muni, a Vedagū, an Anuvidita, a Dhīra, an Āgāniya, a Sottiya, an Ariya, a Karanavat, a Paribbāgaka. Bhagavat answers his questions, and Sabhiya finally receives the robe and the orders from Buddha.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Rāgagaha, in Veluvana, in Kalandakanivāpa. And at that time questions were recited to Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka

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(wandering mendicant), by an old benevolent deity: 'He who, O Sabhiya, be it a Samana or a Brāmana, explains these questions to thee when asked, near him thou shouldst live a religious life.'

Then Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, having learnt the questions from that deity, went to whatever Samanas and Brāmanas there were that had an assembly (of Bhikkhus), a crowd (of followers), and were well-known teachers, famous leaders, considered excellent by the multitude, as Pūrana-Kassapa, Makkhali-Gosāla, Agita-Kesakambali, Pakudha-Kakkāyana, Sańgaya-Belatthiputta, and Nigantha-Nātaputta. Those he went to, and after going to them, he asked the questions. They, being asked the questions by Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, did not succeed (in answering them), and not succeeding, they showed wrath and hatred and discontent, and they also in return put questions to Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka.

Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka: 'Whatever Samanas and Brāmanas there are that have an assembly (of Bhikkhus), a crowd (of followers), and are well-known teachers, famous leaders, considered excellent by the multitude, as Pūrana-Kassapa, Makkhali-Gosāla, Agita-Kesakambali, Pakudha-Kakkāyana, Sańgaya-Belatthiputta, and Nigantha-Nātaputta, they, being asked questions by me, did not succeed (in answering them), and not succeeding they showed wrath and hatred and discontent, and they also in return put questions to me in this matter; surely I think I shall go back to what I have left, and enjoy sensual pleasures.

Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka: 'This Samana Gotama has both an

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assembly (of Bhikkhus) and a crowd (of followers), and is a well-known teacher, a famous leader, considered excellent by the multitude, surely I think I shall go to Samana Gotama and ask these questions.' Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka: 'Whatever Samanas and Brāhmanas there are that are decayed, old, aged, advanced in years, having reached old age, experienced elders, long ordained, having assemblies (of Bhikkhus), crowds (of followers), being teachers well-known, famous leaders, considered excellent by the multitude, as Pūrana-Kassapa, Makkhali-Gosāla, Agita-Kesakambali, Pakudha-Kakkāyana, Sańgaya-Belatthiputta, and Nigantha-Nātaputta, they, being asked questions by me, did not succeed (in answering them), and not succeeding they showed wrath and hatred and discontent, and they also in return put questions to me in this matter; (I should like to know) whether Samana Gotama being asked these questions will be able to explain them to me, for Samana Gotama is both young by birth and new in ascetic life.'

Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka: 'Samana Gotama is not to be slighted because he is young; even if the Samana is young, yet he is mighty and powerful; surely I think I shall go to Samana Gotama and ask these questions.' Then Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, went on a journey to Rāgagaha, and wandering on his journey in regular order he came to Rāgagaha, Veluvana, Kalandakanivāpa, to Bhagavat, and having come to Bhagavat he talked pleasantly with him, and after having had some pleasant and remarkable conversation with him he sat down apart; sitting down apart

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Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, spoke to Bhagavat in stanzas:

1. 'Anxious and doubtful I have come,'--so said Sabhiya,--'longing to ask questions. Do thou put an end to these (doubts when) asked these questions by me, in regular order, and rightly explain them to me.' (510)

2. 'Thou hast come from afar, O Sabhiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'longing to ask questions; I shall put an end to those (doubts when) asked those questions by thee, in regular order, and rightly I shall explain them to thee. (511)

3. 'Ask me, O Sabhiya, a question; whatsoever thou wishest in thy mind that question I (will explain, and) put an end to (thy doubt).' (512)

Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka: 'It is marvellous, it is wonderful indeed, the reception which I did not get from other Samanas and Brāhmanas has been given me by Gotama,' so saying he glad, rejoicing, delighted, and highly elated asked Bhagavat a question:

4. 'What should a man (necessarily) have obtained that people may call him a Bhikkhu?'--so said Sabhiya,--'how may they call him compassionate, and how subdued? how can he be called enlightened (buddha)? Asked (about this) do thou, Bhagavat, explain it to me.' (513)

5. 'He who by the path he has himself made, O Sabhiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'has attained to perfect happiness, who has conquered doubt, who lives after having left behind both gain and goods, who has destroyed re-birth, he is a Bhikkhu. (514)

6. 'Always resigned and attentive, he will not hurt any one in all the world, the Samana who has

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crossed the stream (of existence, and is) untroubled; for whom there are no desires (ussada), he is compassionate. (515)

7. 'He whose senses are trained internally and externally in all the world, he who after penetrating this and the other world longs for death, being trained, he is subdued. (516)

8. 'Whosoever, after having considered all times (kappa), the revolution (samsāra), both the vanishing and re-appearance (of beings), is free from defilement, free from sin, is pure, and has obtained destruction of birth, him they call enlightened (buddha).' (517)

Then Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, having approved of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, rejoicing, delighted, highly elated, asked Bhagavat another question:

9. 'What should a man (necessarily) have obtained that people may call him a Brāmana?'--so said Sabhiya,--'and how (may they call him) a Samana? and how a Nahātaka? how can he be called a Nāga? Asked (about this) do thou Bhagavat explain it to me.' (518)

10. 'He who, after removing all sins, O Sabhiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'is immaculate, well composed, firm-minded, perfect after crossing the Samsāra, such an independent one is called a Brāmana. (519)

11. 'He who is calm, having left behind good and evil, free from defilement, having understood this and the other world, and conquered birth and death, such a one is called a Samana by being so[1].' (520)

12. 'Whosoever, after having washed away all sins internally and externally in all the world, does

[1. Samano tādi pavukkate tathattā.]

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not enter time (kappa) amongst gods and men who are subject to time, him they call a Nahātaka (cleansed)[1]. (521)

13. 'He who does not commit any crime in the world, who, after abandoning all bonds and fetters, clings to nothing, being liberated, such a one is called a Nāga (sinless) by being so[2].' (522)

Then Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, having approved of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, rejoicing, delighted, highly elated, further asked Bhagavat a question:

14. 'Whom do the Buddhas call a Khettagina?'--so said Sabhiya,--'how (can they call any one) a Kusala? and how a Pandita? how can he be called a Muni? Asked (about this) do thou Bhagavat explain it to me.' (523)

15. 'He who, after examining all regions, O Sabhiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'the divine and the human, and Brahman's region, is delivered from the radical bond of all regions, such a one is called a Khettagina (he who has conquered the regions) by being so. (524)

16. 'He who, after examining all treasures, the divine and the human, and Brahman's treasure, is delivered from the radical bond of all treasures, such a one is called a Kusala (happy) by being so. (525)

17. 'He who, after examining both kinds of senses, internally and externally, is endowed with a

[1. Devamanussesu kappiyesu
Kappan n' eti tam āhu nahātako.

2. Āgum na karoti kińki loke
Sabbasamyoge visagga bandhanāni
Sabbattha na saggatī vimutto
Nāgo tādi pavukkate tathattā.
But compare Pabbaggāsutta 17 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1035.htm#pp_420), Māgandiyasutta 11 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1036.htm#pp_845), &c.]

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clear understanding and has conquered evil and good (kanhasukka), such a one is called a Pandita (wise) by being so. (526)

18. 'He who, having understood the Dhamma of the just and the unjust, internally and externally, in all the world, is to be worshipped by gods and men, he, after breaking through the net of ties, is called a Muni (sage).' (527)

Then Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, having approved of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, rejoicing, delighted, highly elated, further asked Bhagavat a question:

19. 'What should one (necessarily) have obtained that people may call him Vedagū?'--so said Sabhiya,--'and how (may they call him) Anuvidita? and how Viriyavat? How does one become Āgāniya? Asked (about this) do thou, O Bhagavat, explain it to me.' (528)

20. 'He who, having conquered all sensations, O Sabhiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'which are (known) to Samanas and to Brāmanas, is free from passion for all sensations, he is Vedagū (having passed sensation) after conquering all sensation. (529)

21. 'He who, having seen the delusion of name and form[1], internally and externally, the root of sickness, and is delivered from the radical bond of all sickness, such a one is called Anuvidita (well-informed) by being so. (530)

22. 'He who is disgusted in this world with all sins, is strong after conquering the pain of hell, is strong and powerful, such a one is called Dhīra ( = viriyavat, firm) by being so. (531)

[1. Anuvikka papańkanāmarūpam.]

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23. 'He whose bonds are cut off internally and externally, the root of ties[1], who is delivered from the radical bond of all ties, such a one is called Āgāniya (high-bred) by being so.' (532)

Then Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, having approved of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, rejoicing, delighted, highly elated, further asked Bhagavat a question:

24. 'What should a man (necessarily) have obtained that people may call him a Sottiya?'--so said Sabhiya,--'how (may they call him) an Ariya? and how a Karanavat? how may he become a Paribbāgaka? Asked (about this) do thou, O Bhagavat, explain it to me.' (533)

25. 'Whosoever, after having heard and understood every Dhamma in the world, O Sabhiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'whatsoever is wrong and whatsoever is blameless, is victorious, free from doubt, liberated, free from pain in every respect, him they call a Sottiya (learned in the revelation). (534)

26. 'Whosoever, after having cut off passions and desires, is wise and does not (again) enter the womb, having driven away the threefold sign, the mud (of lust), and who does not (again) enter time (kappa), him they call an Ariya (noble). (535)

27. 'He who in this world, after having attained the (highest) gain in the Karanas, is skilful, has always understood the Dhamma, clings to nothing, is liberated, and for whom there are no passions, he is a Karanavat (endowed with the obsrvances). (536)

28. 'Whosoever abstains from the action that has a painful result, above and below and across and in

[1. Yass' assu lutāni bandhanāni
Agghattam bahiddhā ka sangamūlam.]

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the middle, who wanders with understanding, who has put an end to deceit, arrogance, cupidity and anger, name and form, him they call a Paribbāgaka (a wandering mendicant) who has attained the (highest) gain.' (537)

Then Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, having approved of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, rejoicing, delighted, highly elated, having risen from his seat, and having put his upper robe upon one shoulder, bending his joined hands towards Bhagavat, praised Bhagavat face to face in appropriate stanzas:

29. 'Having conquered the three and sixty (philosophical) views referring to the disputations of the Samanas, thou hast crossed over the darkness of the stream[1]. (?) (538)

30. 'Thou hast passed to the end of and beyond pain, thou art a saint, perfectly enlightened, I consider thee one that has destroyed his passions, thou art glorious, thoughtful, of great understanding, O thou who puts an end to pain, thou hast carried me across. (539)

31. 'Because thou sawest my longing, and carriedst me across my doubt, adoration be to thee, O Muni, who hast attained the (highest) gain in the ways of wisdom; O thou who art a true kinsman of the Ādikkas, thou art compassionate. (540)

32. 'The doubt I had before thou hast cleared away for me, O thou clearly-seeing; surely thou art a Muni, perfectly enlightened, there is no obstacle for thee. (541)

[1. Yāni ka tīni yāni ka satthi
Samanappavādasitāni bhūripańńa
Sańńakkhara sańńanissitāni (?)
Osaranāni vineyya oghatam' agā.]

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33. 'And all thy troubles are scattered and cut off, thou art calm, subdued, firm, truthful. (542)

34. 'All gods and both Nārada and Pabbata rejoice at thee, the chief of the sinless (nāganāga), the great hero, when thou art speaking. (543)

35. 'Adoration be to thee, O noble man, adoration be to thee, O thou best of men; in the world of men and gods there is no man equal to thee. (544)

36. 'Thou art Buddha, thou art the Master, thou art the Muni that conquers Māra; after having cut off desire thou hast crossed over and hast carried across this generation. (545)

37. 'The elements of existence (upadhi) are overcome by thee, the passions are destroyed by thee, thou art a lion, free from desire, thou hast left behind fear and terror. (546)

38. 'As a beautiful lotus does not adhere to the water, so thou dost not cling to good and evil, to either; stretch forth thy feet, O hero, Sabbiya worships the Master's (feet).' (547)

Then Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, stooping with his head to Bhagavat's feet, said this to Bhagavat:

'It is excellent, O venerable! It is excellent, O venerable! As one raises what has been overthrown, or reveals what has been hidden, or tells the way to him who has gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark that those who have eyes may see the objects, even so by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the Dhamma has been illustrated; I take refuge in the venerable Gotama, in the Dhamma, and in the Assembly of Bhikkhus; I wish to receive the robe and the orders from the venerable Bhagavat.'

'He who, O Sabhiya, formerly belonging

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another creed (ańńatitthiyapubba), wishes to be adopted into this religion (dhammavinaya), and wishes to receive the robe and the orders, he serves for four months; after the lapse of four months Bhikkhus who have appeased their thoughts will give him the robe and the orders to become a Bhikkhu, (for) I also in this matter acknowledge difference of persons.'

'If, O venerable, those that formerly belonged to another creed and wish to be adopted into this religion and to receive the robe and the orders, serve for four months, and after the lapse of four months Bhikkhus who have appeased their thoughts give them the robe and the orders that they may become Bhikkhus, I will (also) serve for four months, and after the lapse of four months Bhikkhus who have appeased their thoughts shall give (me) the robe and the orders that I may become a Bhikkhu.'

Sabhiya, the Paribbāgaka, received the robe and the orders from Bhagavat, and the venerable Sabhiya, having lately received the upasampadā, leading a solitary, retired, strenuous, ardent, energetic life, lived after having in a short time in this existence by his own understanding ascertained and possessed himself of that highest perfection of a religious life for the sake of which men of good family rightly wander away from their houses to a houseless state. 'Birth had been destroyed, a religious life had been led, what was to be done had been done, there was nothing else (to be done) for this existence,' so he perceived, and the venerable Sabhiya became one of the saints.

Sabhiyasutta is ended.

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7. SELASUTTA.



Keniya, the Gatila, invites Buddha with his assembly to take his meals with him on the morrow. Sela, the Brāmana, arrived at that place with his three hundred young men; seeing the preparations he asks what is going on, and is answered that Buddha is expected the next day. On hearing the word 'Buddha,' Sela asks where Buddha lives, goes to him, converses with him, and is converted; so are his followers.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat wandering about in Anguttarāpa, with a large assembly of Bhikkhus, with 1250 Bhikkhus, went to Āpana, a town in Anguttarāpa.

And Keniya, the ascetic, with matted hair (gatila) heard the following: 'The Samana, the venerable Gotama, the Sakya son, gone out from the family of the Sakyas, wandering about in Anguttarāpa with a large assembly of Bhikkhus, with 1250 Bhikkhus, has reached Āpana, and the following good praising words met the venerable Gotama: "And so he is Bhagavat, the venerable, the perfectly enlightened, endowed with science and works (viggākarana), the happy, knowing the world, the incomparable, the charioteer of men that are to be subdued, the master, the enlightened of gods and men, the glorious; he teaches this world and the world of gods, of Māras, of Brahmans, and beings comprising Samanas and Brāmanas, gods and men, having himself known and seen them face to face; he teaches the Dhamma (which is) good in the beginning, in the middle, and in the end, is full of meaning and rich in words, quite complete; he teaches a religious life, and good is the sight of such saints."'

Then Keniya, the Gatila, went (to the place) where

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Bhagavat was, and having gone there he talked pleasantly with him, and after having had some pleasant and remarkable conversation (with him) he sat down apart; and while Keniya, the Gatila, was sitting down apart, Bhagavat, by religious talk, taught, advised, roused, and delighted him. Then Keniya, the Gatila, having been taught, advised, roused, and delighted by Bhagavat through religious talk, said this to Bhagavat:

'Let the venerable Gotama accept my food tomorrow, together with the assembly of Bhikkhus.'

This having been said, Bhagavat answered Keniya, the Gatila: 'Large, O Keniya, is the assembly of Bhikkhus, one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus, and thou art intimate with the Brāmanas.'

A second time Keniya, the Gatila, said this to Bhagavat: 'Although, O venerable Gotama, the assembly of Bhikkhus is large, one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus, and I am intimate with the Brāmanas, let the venerable Gotama accept my food to-morrow, together with the assembly of Bhikkhus.'

A second time Bhagavat said this to Keniya, the Gatila: 'Large, O Keniya, is the assembly of Bhikkhus, one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus, and thou art intimate with the Brāmanas.'

A third time Keniya, the Gatila, said this to Bhagavat: 'Although, O venerable Gotama, the assembly of Bhikkhus is large, one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus, and I am intimate with the Brāhmanas, yet let the venerable Gotama accept my food to-morrow, together with the assembly of Bhikkhus.' Bhagavat assented by being silent.

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Then Keniya, the Gatila, having learnt the assent of Bhagavat, after rising from his seat went to his hermitage, and having gone there he addressed his friends and servants, his relatives and kinsmen (as follows): 'Let my venerable friends and servants, relatives and kinsmen hear me;--the Samana Gotama has been invited by me to (take his) food (with me) to-morrow, together with the assembly of Bhikkhus; wherefore you must render me bodily service.'

'Surely, O venerable one,' so saying the friends and servants, relatives and kinsmen of Keniya, the Gatila, complying with his request, some of them dug fireplaces, some chopped firewood, some washed the vessels, some placed waterpots, some prepared seats. Keniya, the Gatila, on the other hand, himself provided a circular pavilion.

At that time the Brāmana Sela lived at Āpana, perfect in the three Vedas, vocabulary, Ketubha, etymology, Itihāsa as the fifth (Veda), versed in metre, a grammarian, one not deficient in popular controversy and the signs of a great man, he taught three hundred young men the hymns[1]. At that time Keniya, the Gatila, was intimate with the Brāhmana Sela. Then the Brāmana Sela surrounded by three hundred young men, walking on foot, arrived at the place where the hermitage of Keniya, the Gatila, was. And the Brāmana Sela saw the Gatilas in Keniya's hermitage, some of them digging fireplaces, some chopping firewood, some washing the vessels, some placing waterpots, some

[1. Tena kho pana samayena. Selo brāhmano Āpane pativasati tinnam vedānam pāragū sanighanduketubhānam sākkharappabhedānam itihāsapańkamānam padako veyyākarano lokāyatamahāpurisalakkhanesu anavayo tīni mānavakasatāni mante vāketi.]

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preparing seats, and Keniya, the Gatila, on the other hand, himself providing a circular pavilion; seeing Keniya, the Gatila, he said this: 'Is the venerable Keniya to celebrate the marriage of a son or the marriage of a daughter, or is there a great sacrifice at hand, or has Bimbisāra, the king of Magadha, who has a large body of troops, been invited for to-morrow, together with his army?'

'I am not to celebrate the marriage of a son or the marriage of a daughter, nor has Bimbisāra, the king of Magadha, who has a large body of troops, been invited for to-morrow, together with his army, yet a great sacrifice of mine is at hand. The Samana Gotama, the Sakya son, gone out from the Sakya family, wandering about in Anguttarāpa with a large assembly of Bhikkhus, one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus, has reached Āpana, and the following good praising words met the venerable Gotama: "And so he is Bhagavat, the venerable, the perfectly enlightened, endowed with science and works (viggākarana), the happy, knowing the world, the incomparable, the charioteer of men that are to be subdued, the master, the enlightened of gods and men, the glorious, he has been invited by me for to-morrow, together with the assembly of Bhikkhus."'

'Didst thou say that he is a Buddha, O venerable Keniya?'

'Yes, I say, O venerable Sela, that he is a Buddha.'

'Didst thou say that he is a Buddha, O venerable Keniya? ,

'Yes, I say, O venerable Sela, that he is a Buddha.'

Then this occurred to the Brāhmana Sela: 'This sound "Buddha" is (indeed) rare, but in our hymns

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are to be found the thirty-two signs of a great man, and for a great man endowed with these there are two conditions, and no more: if he lives in a house he is a king, a universal (king), a just religious king, a lord of the four-cornered (earth), a conqueror, one who has obtained the security of his people (and) is possessed of the seven gems. These are his seven gems, namely, the wheel gem, the elephant gem, the horse gem, the pearl gem, the woman gem, the householder gem, and the chief gem as the seventh. He has more than a thousand sons, heroes, possessing great bodily strength and crushing foreign armies; he having conquered this ocean-girt earth without a rod and without a weapon, but by justice, lives (in a house). But if, on the other hand, he goes out from (his) house to the houseless state, he becomes a saint, a perfectly enlightened, one who has removed the veil in the world. And where, O venerable Keniya, dwells now that venerable Gotama, the saint and the perfectly enlightened?'

This having been said, Keniya, the Gatila, stretching out his right arm, spoke as follows to the Brāmana Sela: 'There, where yon blue forest line is, O venerable Sela.'

Then the Brāmana Sela together with (his) three hundred young men went to the place where Bhagavat was. Then the Brāmana Sela addressed those young men: 'Come ye, venerable ones, with but little noise, walking step by step, for Bhagavats are difficult of access, walking alone like lions, and when I speak to the venerable Samana Gotama, do ye not utter interrupting words, but wait ye venerable ones, for the end of my speech.'

Then the Brāmana Sela went to the place where

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Bhagavat was, and having gone there he talked pleasantly with Bhagavat, and after having had some pleasant and remarkable conversation with him he sat down apart, and while sitting down apart Sela, the Brāhmana, looked for the thirty-two signs of a great man on the body of Bhagavat. And the Brāmana Sela saw the thirty-two signs of a great man on the body of Bhagavat with the exception of two; in respect to two of the signs of a great man he had doubts, he hesitated, he was not satisfied, he was not assured as to the member being enclosed in a membrane and as to his having a large tongue.

Then this occurred to Bhagavat: 'This Brāmana Sela sees in me the thirty-two signs of a great man with the exception of two, in respect to two of the signs of a great man he has doubts, he hesitates, he is not satisfied, he is not assured as to the member being enclosed in a membrane, and as to my having a large tongue.' Then Bhagavat created such a miraculous creature that the Brāmana Sela might see Bhagavat's member enclosed in a membrane. Then Bhagavat having put out his tongue touched and stroked both his ears, touched and stroked both nostrils, and the whole circumference of his forehead he covered with his tongue.

Then this occurred to the Brāhmana Sela: 'The Samana Gotama is endowed with the thirty-two signs of a great man, with them all, not with (only) some of them, and yet I do not know whether he is a Buddha or not; I have heard old and aged Brāhmanas, teachers and their previous teachers, say that those who are saints and perfectly enlightened manifest themselves when their praise is uttered. I think I shall praise the Samana Gotama face to

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face in suitable stanzas.' Then the Brāmana Sela praised Bhagavat face to face in suitable stanzas:

1. 'Thou hast a perfect body, thou art resplendent, well-born, of beautiful aspect, thou hast a golden colour, O Bhagavat, thou hast very white teeth, thou art strong. (548)

2. 'All the signs that are for a well-born man, they are on thy body, the signs of a great man. (549)

3. 'Thou hast a bright eye, a handsome countenance, thou art great, straight, majestic, thou shinest like a sun in the midst of the assembly of the Samanas. (550)

4. 'Thou art a Bhikkhu of a lovely appearance, thou hast a skin like gold; what is the use of being a Samana to thee who art possessed of the highest beauty? (551)

5. 'Thou deservest to be a king, a king of universal kings, a ruler of the four-cornered (earth), a conqueror, a lord of the jambu grove (i.e. India). (552)

6. 'Khattiyas and wealthy kings are devoted to thee; rule, O Gotama, as a king of kings, a leader of men.' (553)

7. 'I am a king, O Sela,'--so said Bhagavat,--'an incomparable, religious king (dhammarāgan), with justice (dhammena) I turn the wheel, a wheel that is irresistible[1].' (554)

8. 'Thou acknowledgest thyself (to be) perfectly enlightened (sambuddha),'--so said Sela, the Brāhmana,--'an incomparable, religious king; "with justice I turn the wheel," so thou sayest, O Gotama. (555)

[1. Compare Gospel of S. John xviii. 37 (http://sacred-texts.com/bib/kjv/joh.htm#18:37).]

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9. 'Who is thy general, (who is thy) disciple, (who is) the successor of the master, who is to turn after thee the wheel of religion turned (by thee)? ' (556)

10. 'The wheel turned by me, O Sela,'--so said Bhagavat,--'the incomparable wheel of religion, Sāriputta is to turn after (me), he taking after Tathāgata. (557)

11. 'What is to be known is known (by me), what is to be cultivated is cultivated (by me), what is to be left is left by me, therefore I am a Buddha, O Brāmana. (558)

12. 'Subdue thy doubt about me, have faith (in me), O Brāmana, difficult (to obtain) is the sight of Buddhas repeatedly. (559)

13. 'Of those whose manifestation is difficult for you (to obtain) in the world repeatedly, I am, O Brāmana, a perfectly enlightened, an incomparable physician, (560)

14. 'Most eminent, matchless, a crusher of Māra's army; having subjected all enemies I rejoice secure on every side.' (561)

15. Sela: 'O venerable ones, pay attention to this: as the clearly-seeing (Buddha) says, (so it is): he is a physician, a great hero, and roars like a lion in the forest. (562)

16. 'Who, having seen him, the most eminent, the matchless, the crusher of Māra's army, is not appeased, even if he be, of black origin (kanhābhigātika). (563)

17. 'He who likes me, let him follow after (me), he who does not like me, let him go away; I shall at once take the orders in the presence of him of excellent understanding (i.e. Buddha).' (564)

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18. The followers of Sela: 'If this doctrine of the perfectly enlightened pleases thee, we also shall take the orders in the presence of him of excellent understanding.' (565)

19. These three hundred Brāmanas asked with clasped hands (to be admitted into the order): 'We want to cultivate a religious life, O Bhagavat, in thy presence.' (566)

20. 'A religious life is well taught (by me), O Sela,'--so said Bhagavat,--'an instantaneous, an immediate (life), in which it is not in vain to become an ascetic to one who learns in earnest[1].' (567)

Then the Brāmana Sela together with his assembly took the robe and the orders in the presence of Bhagavat.

Then Keniya, the Gatila, by the expiration of that night, having provided in his hermitage nice hard food and soft food, let Bhagavat know the time (of the meal): 'It is time, O venerable Gotama, the meal is prepared.' Then Bhagavat in the morning, having put on his raiment and taken his bowl and robes, went to the Gatila Keniya's hermitage, and having gone there he sat down on the prepared seat, together with the assembly of Bhikkhus. Then Keniya, the Gatila, satisfied and served with his own hands the assembly of Bhikkhus, with Buddha at their head, with nice hard food and soft food. Then Keniya, the Gatila, having gone up to Bhagavat who had finished eating and had taken his hand out of the bowl, took a low seat and sat down apart, and

[1. Svākkhātam brahmakariyam
Sanditthikam akālikam
Yattha amoghā pabbaggā
Appamattassa sikkhato.]

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while Keniya, the Gatila, was sitting down apart, Bhagavat delighted him with these stanzas:

21. 'The principal thing in sacrifice is the sacred fire, the principal thing amongst the hymns is the Sāvitti[1], the king is the principal amongst men, and the sea the principal amongst waters (nadīnam[2]). (568)

22. 'Amongst the stars the moon is the principal thing, the sun is the principal thing amongst the burning[3] (objects), amongst those that wish for good works and make offerings the assembly (samgha) indeed is the principal.' (569)

Then Bhagavat, having delighted Keniya, the Gatila, with these stanzas, rose from (his) seat and went away.

Then the venerable Sela together with his assembly leading a solitary, retired, strenuous, ardent, energetic life, lived after having in a short time in this existence by his own understanding ascertained and possessed himself of that highest perfection of a religious life for the sake of which men of good family rightly wander away from their houses to a houseless state; 'birth (had been) destroyed, a religious life (had been) led, what was to be done (had been) done, there was nothing else (to be done) for this existence,' so he perceived, and the venerable Sela together with his assembly became one of the saints.

Then the venerable Sela together with his assembly went to Bhagavat, and having gone (to him) he put his upper robe on one shoulder, and bending his joined hands towards Bhagavat he addressed him in stanzas:

[1. Sāvittī khandaso mukham.

2. Comp. Nālakasutta v. 42 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1035.htm#pp_720).

3. Ādikko tapatam mukham.]

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23. 'Because we took refuge in thee on the eighth day previous to this, O thou clearly-seeing, in seven nights, O Bhagavat, we have been trained in thy doctrine. (570)

24. 'Thou art Buddha, thou art the Master, thou art the Muni that conquered Māra, thou hast, after cutting off the affections, crossed over (the stream of existence) and taken over these beings. (571)

25. 'The elements of existence (upadhi) have been overcome by thee, the passions have been destroyed by thee, thou art a lion not seizing on anything, thou hast left behind fear and danger. (572)

26. 'These three hundred Bhikkhus stand here with clasped hands; stretch out thy feet, O hero, let the Nāgas worship the Master's feet.' (573)

Selasutta is ended.


8. SALLASUTTA.



Life is short, all mortals are subject to death, but knowing the terms of the world the wise do not grieve, and those who have left sorrow will be blessed.--Text in the Dasaratha-Gātaka, p. 34.
1. Without a cause and unknown is the life of mortals in this world, troubled and brief, and combined with pain. (574)

2. For there is not any means by which those that have been born can avoid dying; after reaching old age there is death, of such a nature are living beings. (575)

3. As ripe fruits are early in danger of falling, so mortals when born are always in danger of death. (576)

4. As all earthen vessels made by the potter end in being broken, so is the life of mortals. (577)

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5. Both young and grown-up men, both those who are fools and those who are wise men, all fall into the power of death, all are subject to death. (578)

6. Of those who, overcome by death, go to the other world, a father does not save his son, nor relatives their relations. (579)

7. Mark! while relatives are looking on and lamenting greatly, one by one of the mortals is carried off, like an ox that is going to be killed. (580)

8. So the world is afflicted with death and decay, therefore the wise do not grieve, knowing the terms of the world. (581)

9. For him, whose way thou dost not know, either when he is coming or when he is going, not seeing both ends, thou grievest in vain. (582)

10. If he who grieves gains anything, (although he is only) a fool hurting himself, let the wise man do the same. (583)

11. Not from weeping nor from grieving will any one obtain peace of mind; (on the contrary), the greater his pain will be, and his body will suffer. (584)

12. He will be lean and pale, hurting himself by himself, (and yet) the dead are not saved, lamentation (therefore) is of no avail. (585)

13. He who does not leave grief behind, goes (only) deeper into pain; bewailing the dead he falls into the power of grief. (586)

14. Look at others passing away, men that go (to what they deserve) according to their deeds, beings trembling already here, after falling into the power of death. (587)

15. In whatever manner people think (it will come to pass), different from that it becomes, so great is

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the disappointment[1] (in this world); see, (such are) the terms of the world. (588)

16. Even if a man lives a hundred years or even more, he is at last separated from the company of his relatives, and leaves life in this world. (589)

17. Therefore let one, hearing (the words of) the saint, subdue his lamentation; seeing the one that has passed away and is dead, (let him say): 'He will not be found by me (any more).' (590)

18. As a house on fire is extinguished by water, so also the wise, sensible, learned, clever man rapidly drives away sorrow that has arisen, as the wind a tuft of cotton. (591)

19. He who seeks his own happiness should draw out his arrow (which is) his lamentation, and complaint, and grief. (592)

20. He who has drawn out the arrow and is not dependent (on anything) will obtain peace of mind; he who has overcome all sorrow will become free from sorrow, and blessed (nibbuta). (593)

Sallasutta is ended.


9. VĀSETTHASUTTA.



A dispute arose between two young men, Bhāradvāga and Vāsettha, the former contending man to be a Brāmana by birth, the latter by deeds. They agreed to go and ask Samana Gotama, and he answered that man is a Brāmana by his work only. The two young men are converted.--Text (from Magghimanikāya) and translation in Alwis's Buddhist Nirvāna, p. 103.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Ikkhānamkala, in the Ikkhānamkala forest. At that time many distinguished,

[1. Etādiso vinābhāvo.]

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wealthy Brāmanas lived at Ikkhānamkala, as the Brāmana Kamkin, the Brāmana Tārukkha, the Brāmana Pokkharasāti, the Brāhmana Gānussoni, the Brāmana Todeyya, and other distinguished, wealthy Brāmanas.

Then this dialogue arose between the young men Vāsettha and Bhāradvāga while walking about:

'How does one become a Brāmana?'

The young man Bhāradvāga said: 'When one is noble by birth on both sides, on the mother's and on the father's side, of pure conception up to the seventh generation of ancestors, not discarded and not reproached in point of birth, in this way one is a Brāmana.'

The young man Vāsettha said: 'When one is virtuous and endowed with (holy) works, in this way he is a Brāmana.'

Neither could the young man Bhāradvāga convince the young man Vāsettha, nor could the young man Vāsettha convince the young man Bhāradvāga. Then the young man Vāsettha addressed the young man Bhāradvāga: 'O Bhāradvāga, this Samana Gotama, the Sakya son, gone out from the Sakya family, dwells at Ikkhānamkala, in the forest of Ikkhānamkala, and the following good praising words met the venerable Gotama: "And so he is Bhagavat, the venerable, the enlightened, the glorious, let us go, O venerable Bhāradvāga, let us go (to the place) where the Samana Gotama is, and having gone there let us ask the Samana Gotama about this matter, and as the Samana Gotama replies so will we understand it."'

'Very well, O venerable one;' so the young man Bhāradvāga answered the young man Vāsettha.

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Then the young men Vāsettha and Bhāradvāga went (to the place) where Bhagavat was, and having gone, they talked pleasantly with Bhagavat, and after having had some pleasant and remarkable conversation (with him) they sat down apart. Sitting down apart the young man Vāsettha addressed Bhagavat in stanzas:

1. 'We are accepted and acknowledged masters of the three Vedas[1], I am (a pupil) of Pokkharasāti, and this young man is (the pupil) of Tārukkha. (594)

2. 'We are accomplished in all the knowledge propounded by those who are acquainted with the three Vedas, we are padakas (versed in the metre), veyyākaranas (grammarians?), and equal to our teachers in recitation (gappa)[2]. (595)

3. 'We have a controversy regarding (the distinctions of) birth, O Gotama! Bhāradvāga says, one is a Brāmana by birth, and I say, by deeds; know this, O thou clearly-seeing! (596)

4. 'We are both unable to convince each other, (therefore) we have come to ask thee (who art) celebrated as perfectly enlightened. (597)

5. 'As people adoring the full moon worship (her) with uplifted clasped hands, so (they worship) Gotama in the world. (598)

6. 'We ask Gotama who has come as an eye to the world: Is a man a Brāhmana by birth, or is he so

[1. Anuńńātapatińńātā
Teviggā mayam asm' ubho.

2. Teviggānam
yad akkhātam
Tatra kevalino 'smase,
Padak' asmā veyyākaranā,
Gappe[+] ākariyasādisā.

*. Teviggānam = tivedānam. Commentator; but compare v. 63 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1035.htm#pp_656).

+. Gappe = vede. Commentator.]

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by deeds? Tell us who do not know, that we may know a Brāmana.' (599)

7. 'I will explain to you, O Vāsettha,'--so said Bhagavat,--'in due order the exact distinction of living beings according to species, for their species are manifold. (600)

8. 'Know ye the grass and the trees, although they do not exhibit (it), the marks that constitute species are for them, and (their) species are manifold. (601)

9. 'Then (know ye) the worms, and the moths, and the different sorts of ants, the marks that constitute species are for them, and (their) species are manifold. (602)

10. 'Know ye also the four-footed (animals), small and great, the marks that constitute species are for them, and (their) species are manifold. (603)

11. 'Know ye also the serpents, the long-backed snakes, the marks that constitute species are for them, and (their) species are manifold. (604)

12. 'Then know ye also the fish which range in the water, the marks that constitute species are for them, and (their) species are manifold. (605)

13. 'Then know ye also the birds that are borne along on wings and move through the air, the marks that constitute species are for them, and (their) species are manifold. (606)

14. 'As in these species the marks that constitute species are abundant, so in men the marks that constitute species are not abundant. (607)

15. 'Not as regards their hair, head, ears, eyes, mouth, nose, lips, or brows, (608)

16. 'Nor as regards their neck, shoulders, belly, back, hip, breast, female organ, sexual intercourse, (609)

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17. 'Nor as regards their hands, feet, palms, nails, calves, thighs, colour, or voice are there marks that constitute species as in other species. (610)

18. 'Difference there is in beings endowed with bodies, but amongst men this is not the case, the difference amongst men is nominal (only)[1]. (611)

19. 'For whoever amongst men lives by cowkeeping,--know this, O Vāsettha,--he is a husbandman, not a Brāmana.' (612)

20. 'And whoever amongst men lives by different mechanical arts,--know this, O Vāsettha,--he is an artisan, not a Brāmana. (613)

21. 'And whoever amongst men lives by trade,--know this, O Vāsettha,--he is a merchant, not a Brāmana. (614)

22. And whoever amongst men lives by serving others,--know this, O Vāsettha,--he is a servant, not a Brāhmana. (615)

23. 'And whoever amongst men lives by theft,--know this, O Vāsettha,--he is a thief, not a Brāhmana. (616)

24. 'And whoever amongst men lives by archery,--know this, O Vāsettha,--he is a soldier, not a Brāmana. (617)

25. 'And whoever amongst men lives by performing household ceremonials,--know this, O Vāsettha,--he is a sacrificer, not a Brāmana. (618)

26. 'And whoever amongst men possesses villages and countries,--know this, O Vāsettha,--he is a king, not a Brāmana. (619)

[1. Pakkattam sasarīresu,
Manussesv-etam na viggati,
Vokārań ka manussesu
Samańńāya pavukkati.]

p. 113

27. 'And I do not call one a Brāmana on account of his birth or of his origin from (a particular) mother; he may be called bhovādi, and he may be wealthy, (but) the one who is possessed of nothing and seizes upon nothing, him I call a Brāhmana[1]. (620)

28. 'Whosoever, after cutting all bonds, does not tremble, has shaken off (all) ties and is liberated, him I call a Brāmana. (621)

29. 'The man who, after cutting the strap (i.e. enmity), the thong (i.e. attachment), and the rope (i.e. scepticism) with all that pertains to it, has destroyed (all) obstacles (i.e. ignorance), the enlightened (buddha), him I call a Brāmana. (622)

30. 'Whosoever, being innocent, endures reproach, blows, and bonds, the man who is strong in (his) endurance and has for his army this strength, him I call a Brāmana. (623)

31. 'The man who is free from anger, endowed with (holy) works, virtuous, without desire, subdued, and wearing the last body, him I call a Brāhmana. (624)

32. 'The man who, like water on a lotus leaf, or a mustard seed on the point of a needle, does not cling to sensual pleasures, him I call a Brāhmana. (625)

33. 'The man who knows in this world the destruction of his pain, who has laid aside (his) burden, and is liberated, him I call a Brāmana. (626)

34. 'The man who has a profound understanding, who is wise, who knows the true way and the wrong way, who has attained the highest good, him I call a Brāmana. (627)

[1. Comp. Dhp. v. 396 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1028.htm#pp_396), &c.]

p. 114

35. 'The man who does not mix with householders nor with the houseless, who wanders about without a house, and who has few wants, him I call a Brāhmana. (628)

36. 'Whosoever, after refraining from hurting (living) creatures, (both) those that tremble and those that are strong, does not kill or cause to be killed, him I call a Brāmana. (629)

37. 'The man who is not hostile amongst the hostile, who is peaceful amongst the violent, not seizing (upon anything) amongst those that seize (upon everything), him I call a Brāmana. (630)

38. 'The man whose passion and hatred, arrogance and hypocrisy have dropt like a mustard seed from the point of a needle, him I call a Brāmana. (631)

39. 'The man that utters true speech, instructive and free from harshness, by which he does not offend any one, him I call a Brāmana. (632)

40. 'Whosoever in the world does not take what has not been given (to him), be it long or short, small or large, good or bad, him I call a Brāhmana. (633)

41. 'The man who has no desire for this world or the next, who is desireless and liberated, him I call a Brāmana. (634)

42. 'The man who has no desire, who knowingly is free from doubt; and has attained the depth of immortality, him I call a Brāmana. (635)

43. 'Whosoever in this world has overcome good and evil, both ties, who is free from grief and defilement, and is pure, him I call a Brāmana. (636)

44. 'The man that is stainless like the moon, pure, serene, and undisturbed, who has destroyed joy, him I call a Brāmana. (637)

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45. 'Whosoever has passed over this quagmire difficult to pass, (who has passed over) revolution (samsāra) and folly, who has crossed over, who has reached the other shore, who is meditative, free from desire and doubt, calm without seizing (upon anything), him I call a Brāmana. (638)

46. 'Whosoever in this world, after abandoning sensual pleasures, wanders about houseless, and has destroyed the existence of sensual pleasures (kāmabhava), him I call a Brāmana. (639)

47. 'Whosoever in this world, after abandoning desire, wanders about houseless, and has destroyed the existence of desire (tanhābhava), him I call a Brāmana. (640)

48. 'Whosoever, after leaving human attachment (yoga), has overcome divine attachment, and is liberated from all attachment, him I call a Brāhmana. (641)

49. 'The man that, after leaving pleasure and disgust, is calm and free from the elements of existence (nirupadhi), who is a hero, and has conquered all the world, him I call a Brāmana. (642)

50. 'Whosoever knows wholly the vanishing and reappearance of beings, does not cling to (anything); is happy (sugata), and enlightened, him I call a Brāmana. (643)

51. 'The man whose way neither gods nor Gandhabbas nbr men know, and whose passions are destroyed, who is a saint, him I call a Brāmana. (644)

52. 'The man for whom there is nothing, neither before nor after nor in the middle, who possesses nothing, and does not seize (upon anything), him I call a Brāmana. (645)

53. 'The (man that is undaunted like a) bull, who

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is eminent, a hero, a great sage (mahesi), victorious, free from desire, purified, enlightened, him I call a Brāmana. (646)

54. 'The man who knows his former dwellings, who sees both heaven and hell, and has reached the destruction of births, him I call a Brāmana. (647)

55. 'For what has been designated as "name" and "family" in the world is only a term, what has been designated here and there is understood by common consent[1]. (648)

56. 'Adhered to for a long time are the views of the ignorant, the ignorant tell us, one is a Brāmana by birth. (649)

57. 'Not by birth is one a Brāmana, nor is one by birth no Brāmana; by work (kammanā) one is a Brāmana, by work one is no Brāmana. (650)

58. 'By work one is a husbandman, by work one is an artisan, by work one is a merchant, by work one is a servant. (651)

59. 'By work one is a thief, by work one is a soldier, by work one is a sacrificer, by work one is a king. (652)

60. 'So the wise, who see the cause of things and understand the result of work, know this work as it really is[2]. (653)

61. 'By work the world exists, by work mankind

[1. Samańńā h' esā lokasmim
Nāmagottam pakappitam,
Sammukkā samudāgatam
Tattha tattha pakappitam.

2. Evam etam yathābhūtam
Kammam passanti panditā
Patikkasamuppādadasā
Kammavipākakovidā.]

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exists, beings are bound by work as the linch-pin of the rolling cart (keeps the wheel on)[1]. (654)

62. 'By penance, by a religious life, by self-restraint, and by temperance, by this one is a Brāmana, such a one (they call) the best Brāmana. (655)

63. 'He who is endowed with the threefold knowledge[2], is calm, and has destroyed regeneration,--know this, O Vāsettha,--he is to the wise Brahman and Sakka.' (656)

This having been said, the young men Vāsettha and Bhāradvāga spoke to Bhagavat as follows:

'It is excellent, O venerable Gotama! It is excellent, O venerable Gotama! As one raises what has been overthrown, or reveals what has been hidden, or tells the way to him who has gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark that those who have eyes may see the objects, even so by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the Dhamma has been illustrated; we take refuge in the venerable Gotama, in the Dhamma, and in the Assembly of Bhikkhus; may the venerable Gotama receive us as followers (upāsaka), who from this day for life have taken refuge (in him).'

Vāsetthasutta is ended.

[1. Kammanā vattatī loko,
Kammanā vattatī pagā,
Kammanibandhanā sattā
Rathasānīva yāyato.

2. Tīhi viggāhi sampanno.]

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10. KOKĀLIYASUTTA.



Kokāliya abuses Sāriputta and Moggallāna to Buddha; therefore as soon as he has left Buddha, he is struck with boils, dies and goes to the Paduma hell, whereupon Buddha describes to the Bhikkhus the punishment of backbiters in hell.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Sāvatthī, in Getavana, in the park of Anāthapindika. Then the Bhikkhu Kokāliya approached Bhagavat, and after having approached and saluted Bhagavat he sat down apart; sitting down apart the Bhikkhu Kokāliya said this to Bhagavat: "O thou venerable one, Sāriputta and Moggallāna have evil desires, they have fallen into the power of evil desires.'

When this had been said, Bhagavat spoke to the Bhikkhu Kokāliya as follows: '(Do) not (say) so, Kokāliya; (do) not (say) so, Kokāliya; appease, O Kokāliya, (thy) mind in regard to Sāriputta and Moggallāna: Sāriputta and Moggallāna are amiable[1].'

A second time the Bhikkhu Kokāliya said this to Bhagavat: 'Although thou, O venerable Bhagavat, (appearest) to me (to be) faithful and trustworthy, yet Sāriputta and Moggallāna have evil desires, they have fallen into the power of evil desires.'

A second time Bhagavat said this to the Bhikkhu Kokāliya: '(Do) not (say) so, Kokāliya; (do) not (say) so, Kokāliya; appease, O Kokāliya, (thy) mind in regard to Sāriputta and Moggallāna: Sāriputta and Moggallāna are amiable.'

A third time the Bhikkhu Kokāliya said this to Bhagavat: 'Although thou, O venerable Bhagavat, (appearest) to me (to be) faithful and trustworthy,

[1. Pesalā ti piyasīlā. Commentator.]

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yet Sāriputta and Moggallāna have evil desires, Sāriputta and Moggallāna have fallen into the power of evil desires.'

A third time Bhagavat said this to the Bhikkhu Kokāliya: '(Do) not (say) so, Kokāliya; (do) not (say) so, Kokāliya; appease, O Kokāliya, (thy) mind in regard to Sāriputta and Moggallāna: Sāriputta and Moggallāna are amiable.'

Then the Bhikkhu Kokāliya, after having risen from his seat and saluted Bhagavat and walked round him towards the right, went away; and when he had been gone a short time, all his body was struck with boils as large as mustard seeds; after being only as large as mustard seeds, they became as large as kidney beans; after being only as large as kidney beans, they became as large as chick peas; after being only as large as chick peas, they became as large as a Kolatthi egg (?); after being only as large as a Kolatthi egg, they became as large as the jujube fruit; after being only as large as the jujube fruit, they became as large as the fruit of the emblic myrobalan; after being only as large as the fruit of the emblic myrobalan, they became as large as the unripe beluva fruit; after being only as large as the unripe beluva fruit, they became as large as a billi fruit (?); after being as large as a billi fruit, they broke, and matter and blood flowed out. Then the Bhikkhu Kokāliya died of that disease, and when he had died the Bhikkhu Kokāliya went to the Paduma hell, having shown a hostile mind against Sāriputta and Moggallāna. Then when the night had passed Brahman Sahampati of a beautiful appearance, having lit up all Getavana, approached Bhagavat, and having approached and saluted Bhagavat,

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he stood apart, and standing apart Brahman Sahampati said this to Bhagavat: 'O thou venerable one, Kokāliya, the Bhikkhu, is dead and after death, O thou venerable one, the Bhikkhu Kokāliya is gone to the Paduma hell, having shown a hostile mind against Sāriputta and Moggallāna.'

This said Brahman Sahampati, and after saying this and saluting Bhagavat, and walking round him towards the right, he disappeared there.

Then Bhagavat, after the expiration of that night, addressed the Bhikkhus thus: 'Last night, O Bhikkhus, when the night had (nearly) passed, Brahman Sahampati of a beautiful appearance, having lit up all Getavana, approached Bhagavat, and having approached and saluted Bhagavat, he stood apart, and standing apart Brahman Sahampati said this to Bhagavat: "O thou venerable one, Kokāliya, the Bhikkhu, is dead; and after death, O thou venerable one, the Bhikkhu Kokāliya is gone to the Paduma hell, having shown a hostile mind against Sāriputta and Moggallāna." This said Brahman Sahampati, O Bhikkhus, and having said this and saluted me, and walked round me towards the right, he disappeared there.'

When this had been said, a Bhikkhu asked Bhagavat: 'How long is the rate of life, O venerable one, in the Paduma hell?'

'Long, O Bhikkhu, is the rate of life in the Paduma hell, it is not easy to calculate either (by saying) so many years or so many hundreds of years or so many thousands of years or so many hundred thousands of years.'

'But it is possible, I suppose, to make a comparison, O thou venerable one?'

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'It is possible, O Bhikkhu;' so saying, Bhagavat spoke (as follows): 'Even as, O Bhikkhu, (if there were) a Kosala load of sesamum seed containing twenty khāris, and a man after the lapse of every hundred years were to take from it one sesamum seed at a time, then that Kosala load of sesamum seed, containing twenty khāris, would, O Bhikkhu, sooner by this means dwindle away and be used up than one Abbuda hell; and even as are twenty Abbuda hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Nirabbuda hell; and even as are twenty Nirabbuda hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Ababa hell; and even as are twenty Ababa hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Ahaha hell; and even as are twenty Ahaha hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Atata hell; and even as are twenty Atata hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Kumuda hell; and even as are twenty Kumuda hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Sogandhika hell; and even as are twenty Sogandhika hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Uppalaka hell; and even as are twenty Uppalaka hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Pundarīka hell; and even as are twenty Pundarīka hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Paduma hell; and to the Paduma hell, O Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu Kokāliya is gone, having shown a hostile mind against Sāriputta and Moggallāna.' This said Bhagavat, and having said this Sugata, the Master, furthermore spoke as follows:

1. 'To (every) man that is born, an axe is born in his mouth, by which the fool cuts himself, when speaking bad language. (657)

2. 'He who praises him who is to be blamed or blames him who as to be praised, gathers up sin in his mouth, and through that (sin) he will not find any joy. (658)

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3. 'Trifling is the sin that (consists in) losing riches by dice; this is a greater sin that corrupts the mind against Sugatas. (659)

4. 'Out of the one hundred thousand Nirabbudas (he goes) to thirty-six, and to five Abbudas; because he blames an Ariya he goes to hell, having employed his speech and mind badly. (660)

5. 'He who speaks falsely goes to hell, or he who having done something says, "I have not done it;" both these after death become equal, in another world (they are both) men guilty of a mean deed[1]. (661)

6. 'He who offends an offenceless man, a pure man, free from sin, such a fool the evil (deed) reverts against, like fine dust thrown against the wind[2]. (662)

7. 'He who is given to the quality of covetousness, such a one censures others in his speech, (being himself) unbelieving, stingy, wanting in affability, niggardly, given to backbiting. (663)

8. 'O thou foul-mouthed, false, ignoble, blasting, wicked, evil-doing, low, sinful, base-born man, do not be garrulous in this world, (else) thou wilt be an inhabitant of hell[3]. (664)

9. 'Thou spreadest pollution to the misfortune (of others), thou revilest the just, committing sin (yourself), and having done many evil deeds thou wilt go to the pool (of hell) for a long time. (665)

[1. Comp. Dhp. v. 306 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1024.htm#pp_306).

2. Comp. Dhp. v. 125 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1011.htm#pp_125).

3. Mukhadugga vibhūta-m-anariya
Bhūnahu
pāpaka dukkatakāri
Purisanta kalī avagāta
Mā bahubhāni dha nerayiko si.

*. Bhūnahu bhūtihanaka vuddhināsaka. Commentator.]

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110. 'For one's deeds are not lost, they will surely come (back to you), (their) master will meet with them, the fool who commits sin will feel the pain in himself in the other world[1]. (666)

11. 'To the place where one is struck with iron rods, to the iron stake with sharp edges he goes; then there is (for him) food as appropriate, resembling a red-hot ball of iron. (667)

12. 'For those who have anything to say (there) do not say fine things, they do not approach (with pleasing faces); they do not find refuge (from their sufferings), they lie on spread embers, they enter a blazing pyre. (668)

13. 'Covering (them) with a net they kill (them) there with iron hammers; they go to dense darkness[2], for that is spread out like the body of the earth. (669)

14. 'Then (they enter) an iron pot, they enter a blazing pyre, for they are boiled in those (iron pots) for a long time, jumping up and down in the pyre. (670)

15. 'Then he who commits sin is surely boiled in a mixture of matter and blood; whatever quarter he inhabits, he becomes rotten there from coming in contact (with matter and blood). (671)

16. 'He who commits sin will surely be boiled in the water, the dwelling-place of worms; there it is not (possible) to get to the shore, for the jars (are) exactly alike[3]. (?) (672)

[1. Comp. Revelation xiv. 13 (http://sacred-texts.com/bib/kjv/rev.htm#14:13).

2. Andham va Timisam āyanti.

3. Pulavāvasathe salilasmim
Tattha kim pakkati kibbisakārī,
Gantum na hi tīram p' atthi
Sabbasamā hi samantakapallā.]

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17. 'Again they enter the sharp Asipattavana with mangled limbs; having seized the tongue with a hook, the different watchmen (of hell) kill (them). (673)

18. 'Then they enter Vetaranī, that is difficult to cross and has got streams of razors with sharp edges; there the fools fall in, the evil-doers after having done evil. (674)

19. 'There black, mottled flocks of ravens eat them who are weeping, and dogs, jackals, great vultures, falcons, crows tear (them). (675)

20. 'Miserable indeed is the life here (in hell) which the man sees that commits sin. Therefore should a man in this world for the rest of his life be strenuous, and not indolent. (676)

21. 'Those loads of sesamum seed which are carried in Paduma hell have been counted by the wise, they are (several) nahutas and five kotis, and twelve hundred kotis besides[1]. (677)

22. 'As long as hells are called painful in this world, so long people will have to live there for a long time; therefore amongst those who have pure, amiable, and good qualities one should always guard speech and mind.' (678)

Kokāliyasutta is ended.


11. NĀLAKASUTTA.



The Isi Asita, also called Kanhasiri, on seeing the gods rejoicing, asks the cause of it, and having heard that Buddha has been born, he descends from Tusita heaven. When the Sakyas showed the child to him, he received it joyfully and prophesied [1. Nahutāni hi kotiyo pańka bhavanti
Dvādasa kotisatāni pun' ańńā.]
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about it. Buddha explains to Nālaka, the sister's son of Asita, the highest state of wisdom.--Compare Lalita-vistara, Adhyāya VII; Asita and Buddha, or the Indian Simeon, by J. Muir, in the Indian Antiquary, Sept. 1878.
Vatthugāthā.

1. The Isi Asita saw in (their) resting-places during the day the joyful, delighted flocks of the Tidasa gods, and the gods in bright clothes, always highly praising Inda, after taking their clothes and waving them. (679)

2. Seeing the gods with pleased minds, delighted, and showing his respect, he said this on that occasion: 'Why is the assembly of the gods so exceedingly pleased, why do they take their clothes and wave them? (680)

3. 'When there was an encounter with the Asuras, a victory for the gods, and the Asuras were defeated, then there was not such a rejoicing. What wonderful (thing) have the gods seen that they are so delighted? (681)

4. 'They shout and sing and make music, they throw (about their) arms and dance; I ask you, the inhabitants of the tops of (mount) Meru, remove my doubt quickly, O venerable ones!' (682)

5. 'The Bodhisatta, the excellent pearl, the incomparable, is born for the good and for a blessing in the world of men, in the town of the Sakyas, in the country of Lumbinī. Therefore we are glad and exceedingly pleased. (683)

6. 'He, the most excellent of all beings, the preeminent man, the bull of men, the most excellent of all creatures will turn the wheel (of the Dhamma) in the forest called after the Isis, (he who is) like the roaring lion, the strong lord of beasts.' (684)

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7. Having heard that noise he descended from (the heaven of) Tusita. Then he went to Suddhodana's palace, and having sat down there he said this to the Sakyas: 'Where is the prince? I wish to see (him).' (685)

8. Then the Sakyas showed to (the Isi), called Asita, the child, the prince who was like shining gold, manufactured by a very skilful (smith) in the mouth of a forge, and beaming in glory and having a beautiful appearance. (686)

9. Seeing the prince shining like fire, bright like the bull of stars wandering in the sky, like the burning sun in autumn, free from clouds, he joyfully obtained great delight. (687)

10. The gods held in the sky a parasol with a thousand circles and numerous branches, yaks' tails with golden sticks were fanned, but those who held the yaks' tails and the parasol were not seen. (688)

11. The Isi with the matted hair, by name Kanhasiri, on seeing the yellow blankets (shining) like a golden coin, and the white parasol held over his head, received him delighted and happy. (689)

12. And having received the bull of the Sakyas, he who was wishing to receive him and knew the signs and the hymns, with pleased thoughts raised his voice, saying: 'Without superior is this, the most excellent of men.' (690)

13. Then remembering his own migration he was displeased and shed tears; seeing this the Sakyas asked the weeping Isi, whether there would be any obstacle in the prince's path. (691)

14. Seeing the Sakyas displeased the Isi said: 'I do not remember anything (that will be) unlucky for the prince, there will be no obstacles at

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all for him, for this is no inferior (person). Be without anxiety. (692)

15. ' This prince will reach the summit of perfect enlightenment, he will turn the wheel of the Dhamma, he who sees what is exceedingly pure (i.e. Nibbāna), this (prince) feels for the welfare of the multitude, and his religion[1] will be widely spread. (693)

16. 'My life here will shortly be at an end, in the middle (of his life) there will be death for me; I shall not hear the Dhamma of the incomparable one; therefore I am afflicted, unfortunate, and suffering.' (694)

17. Having afforded the Sakyas great joy he went out from the interior of the town to lead a religious life; but taking pity on his sister's son, he induced him to embrace the Dhamma of the incomparable one. (695)

18. 'When thou hearest from others the sound "Buddha," (or) "he who has acquired perfect enlightenment walks the way of the Dhamma," then going there and enquiring about the particulars, lead a religious life with that Bhagavat.' (696)

19. Instructed by him, the friendly-minded, by one who saw in the future what is exceedingly pure (i.e. Nibbāna), he, Nālaka, with a heap of gathered-up good works, and with guarded senses dwelt (with him), looking forward to Gina (i.e. Buddha). (697)

20. Hearing the noise, while the excellent Gina turned the wheel (of the Dhamma), and going and seeing the bull of the Isis, he, after being converted,

[1. Brahmakariyam = sāsanam. Commentator.]

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asked the eminent Muni about the best wisdom, when the time of Asita's order had come. (698)

The Vatthugāthās are ended.

21. 'These words of Asita are acknowledged true (by me), therefore we ask thee, O Gotama, who art perfect in all things (dhamma). (699)

22. 'O Muni, to me who am houseless, and who wish to embrace a Bhikkhu's life, explain when asked the highest state, the state of wisdom (moneyya).' (700)

23. 'I will declare to thee the state of wisdom,'--so said Bhagavat,--'difficult to carry out, and difficult to obtain; come, I will explain it to thee, stand fast, be firm. (701)

24. 'Let a man cultivate equanimity: which is (both) reviled and praised in the village, let him take care not to corrupt his mind, let him live calm, and without pride. (702)

25. 'Various (objects) disappear, like a flame of fire in the wood[1]; women tempt the Muni, let them not tempt him. (703)

26. 'Let him be disgusted with sexual intercourse, having left behind sensual pleasures of all kinds, being inoffensive and dispassionate towards living creatures, towards anything that is feeble or strong. (704)

27. 'As I am so are these, as these are so am I, identifying himself with others, let him not kill nor cause (any one) to kill[2]. (705)

[1. Ukkāvakā nikkharanti
Dāye aggisikhūpamā.

2. Yathā aham tathā ete
Yathā ete tathā aham
Attānam upamam katvā
Na haneyya na ghātaye.
Comp. Dhp v. 129 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1012.htm#pp_129).]

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28. 'Having abdoned desire and covetousness let him act as one that sees clearly where a common man sticks, let him cross over this hell. (706)

29. 'Let him be with an empty stomach, taking little food, let him have few wants and not be covetous; not being consumed by desire he will without desire be happy. (707)

30. 'Let the Muni, after going about for alms, repair to the outskirts of the wood, let him go and sit down near the root of a tree. (708)

31. 'Applying himself to meditation, and being wise, let him find his pleasure in the outskirts of the wood, let him meditate at the root of a tree enjoying himself. (709)

32. 'Then when night is passing away let him repair to the outskirts of the village, let him not delight in being invited nor in what is brought away from the village. (710)

33. 'Let not the Muni, after going to the village, walk about to the houses in haste; cutting off (all) talk while seeking food, let him not utter any coherent speech[1]. (711)

34. '"What I have obtained that is good," "I did not get (anything that is) good," so thinking in both cases he returns to the tree unchanged[2]. (712)

35. "Wandering about with his alms-bowl in his

[1. Na vākam payutam bhane.

2. Alattham yad idam sādhu
Nālattham kusalam iti,
Ubhayen' eva so tādi

Rukkham va upanivattati.

*. Tādi = nibbikāro. Commentator.]

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hand, considered dumb without being dumb, let him not blush at a little gift, let him not despise the giver. (713)

36. 'Various are the practices illustrated by the Samana, they do not go twice to the other shore, this (is) not once thought[1]. (?) (714)

37. 'For whom there is no desire, for the Bhikkhu who has cut off the stream (of existence) and abandoned all kinds of work, there is no pain. (715)

38. 'I will declare to thee the state of wisdom,'--so said Bhagavat,--'let one be like the edge of a razor, having struck his palate with his tongue, let him be restrained in (regard to his) stomach. (716)

39. 'Let his mind be free from attachment, let him not think much[2] (about worldly affairs), let him be without defilement, independent, and devoted to a religious life. (717)

40. 'For the sake of a solitary life and for the sake of the service that is to be carried out by Samanas, let him learn, solitariness is called wisdom[3]; alone indeed he will find pleasure. (718)

41. 'Then he will shine through the ten regions, having heard the voice of the wise, of the meditating, of those that have abandoned sensual pleasures, let my adherent then still more devote himself to modesty and belief. (719)

42. 'Understand this from the waters in chasms

[1. Ukkāvakā hi patipadā
Samanena pakāsitā,
Na pāram digunam yanti,
Na idam ekagunam mutam.

2. Na kāpi bahu kintaye.

3. Ekattam monam akkhātam.]

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and cracks: noisy go the small waters, silent goes the vast ocean[1]. (720)

43. 'What is deficient that makes a noise, what is full that is calm; the fool is like a half-(filled) water-pot, the wise is like a full pool. (721)

44. 'When the Samana speaks much that is possessed of good sense, he teaches the Dhamma while knowing it, while knowing it he speaks much[2]. (722)

45. 'But he who while knowing it is self-restrained, and while knowing it does not speak much, such a Muni deserves wisdom (mona), such a Muni has attained to wisdom (mona)[3].' (723)

Nālakasutta is ended.


12. DVAYATĀNUPASSANĀSUTTA.



All pain in the world arises from upadhi, aviggā, samkhārā vińńāna, phassa, vedanā, tanhā, upādāna, ārambha, āhāra, ińgita, nissaya, rūpa, mosadhamma, sukha.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Sāvatthī in Pubbārāma, Migāramātar's mansion. At that time Bhagavat on the Uposatha day[4], on the fifteenth,

[1. Tan nadīhi vigānātha
Sobbhesu padaresu ka:
Sanantā yanti kussobbhā
Tunhī yāti mahodadhi.

2. Yam samano bahu bhāsati
Upetam atthasamhitam
Gānam so dhammam deseti
Gānam so bahu bhāsati.

3. Yo ka gānam samyatatto
Gānam na bahu bhāsati
Sa munī monam arahati
Sa munī monam agghagā.

4. See Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 140.]

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it being full moon, in the evening was sitting in the open air, surrounded by the assembly of Bhikkhus. Then Bhagavat surveying the silent assembly of Bhikkhus addressed them (as follows):

'Whichever Dhammas there are, O Bhikkhus, good, noble, liberating, leading to perfect enlightenment,--what is the use to you of listening to these good, noble, liberating Dhammas, leading to perfect enlightenment? If, O Bhikkhus, there should be people that ask so, they shall be answered thus: "Yes, for the right understanding of the two Dhammas." "Which two do you mean?" "(I mean), this is pain, this is the origin of pain," this is one consideration, "this is the destruction of pain, this is the way leading to the destruction of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly[1], is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

1. 'Those who do not understand pain and the origin of pain, and where pain wholly and totally is stopped, and do not know the way that leads to the cessation of pain, (724)

2. 'They, deprived of the emancipation of thought

[1. . . . kā upanisā savanāyā,'ti iti ke bhikknave pukkhitāro assu te evam assu vakanīyā: yāvad eva dvayatānam dhammānam yathābhūtam ńānāyā 'ti, kińka dvayatam vadetha? 'idam dukkham, ayam dukkhasamudayo' ti ayam ekānupassanā, 'ayam dukkhanirodho, ayam dukkhanirodhagāminī patipadā' ti ayam dutiyānupassanā; evam sammādvayatānupassino . . .]

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and the emancipation of knowledge, are unable to put an end (to samsāra), they will verily continue to undergo birth and decay. (725)

3. 'And those who understand pain and the origin of pain, and where pain wholly and totally is stopped, and who know the way that leads to the cessation of pain, (726)

4. 'They, endowed with the emancipation of thought and the emancipation of knowledge, are able to put an end (to samsāra), they will not undergo birth and decay. (727)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the upadhis (elements of existence)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of the upadhis, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

5. 'Whatever pains there are in the world, of many kinds, they arise having their cause in the upadhis; he who being ignorant creates upadhi, that fool again undergoes pain; therefore being wise do not create upadhi, considering what is the birth and origin of pain. (728)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the

p. 134

Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of aviggā (ignorance)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of aviggā, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

6. 'Those who again and again go to samsāra with birth and death, to existence in this way or in that way,--that is the state of aviggā. (729)

7. 'For this aviggā is the great folly by which this (existence) has been traversed long, but those beings who resort to knowledge do not go to rebirth. (730)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the samkhāras (matter)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of the samkhāras, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state

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of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat; (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

8. 'Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the samkhāras, by the destruction of the samkhāras there will be no origin of pain. (731)

9. 'Looking upon this pain that springs from the samkhāras as misery, from the cessation of all the samkhāras, and from the destruction of consciousness will arise the destruction of pain, having understood this exactly, (732)

10. 'The wise who have true views and are accomplished, having understood (all things) completely, and having conquered all association with Māra, do not go to re-birth. (733)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of vińńāna (consciousness)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of vińńānana, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

11. 'Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of vińńāna, by the destruction of vińńāna there is no origin of pain. (734)

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12. 'Looking upon this pain that springs from vińńāna as misery, from the cessation of vińńāna a Bhikkhu free from desire (will be) perfectly happy (parinibbuta). (735)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of phassa (touch)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of phassa, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

13. 'For those who are ruined by phassa, who follow the stream of existence, who have entered a bad way, the destruction of bonds is far off. (736)

14. 'But those who, having fully understood phassa, knowingly have taken delight in cessation, they verily from the comprehension of phassa, and being free from desire, are perfectly happy. (737)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the vedanās (sensations)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of the vedanās, through absence of passion, there

p. 137

no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

15. 'Pleasure or pain, together with want of pleasure and want of pain, whatever is perceived internally and externally, (738)

16. 'Looking upon this as pain, having touched what is perishable and fragile, seeing the decay (of everything), the Bhikkhu is disgusted, having from the perishing of the vedanās become free from desire, and perfectly happy. (739)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of tanhā (desire)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of tanhā, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

17. 'A man accompanied by tanhā, for a long time transmigrating into existence in this way or

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that way, does not overcome transmigration (samsāra). (740)

18. 'Looking upon this as misery, this origin of the pain of tanhā, let the Bhikkhu free from tanhā, not seizing (upon anything), thoughtful, wander about. (741)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the upādānas (the seizures)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of the upādānas, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

19. 'The existence is in consequence of the upādānas; he who has come into existence goes to pain, he who has been born is to die, this is the origin of pain. (742)

20. 'Therefore from the destruction of the upādānas the wise with perfect knowledge, having seen (what causes) the destruction of birth, do not go to re-birth. (743)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in

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consequence of the ārambhas (exertions)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of the ārambhas, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

21. 'Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the ārambhas, by the destruction of the ārambhas there is no origin of pain. (744)

22, 23. 'Looking upon this pain that springs from the ārambhas as misery, having abandoned all the ārambhas, birth and transmigration have been crossed over by the Bhikkhu who is liberated in non-exertion, who has cut off the desire for existence, and whose mind is calm; there is for him no re-birth. (745, 746)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the āhāras (food?)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of the āhāras, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still

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remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

24. 'Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the āhāras, by the destruction of the āhāras there is no origin of pain. (747)

25. 'Looking upon this pain that springs from the āhāras as misery, having seen the result of all āhāras, not resorting to all āhāras, (748)

26. 'Having seen that health is from the destruction of desire, he that serves discriminatingly and stands fast in the Dhamma cannot be reckoned as existing, being accomplished[1]. (749)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the ińgitas (commotions)," this is one consideration, "but from the complete destruction of the ińgitas, through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

27. 'Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of the ińgitas, by the destruction of the ińgitas there is no origin of pain. (750)

28. 'Looking upon this pain that springs from

[1. Samkham nōpeti vedagū.]

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the ińgitas as misery, and therefore having abandoned the ińgitas and having stopped the samkhāras; let the Bhikkhu free from desire and not seizing (upon anything), thoughtful, wander about. (751)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "For the nissita (dependent) there is vacillation," this is one consideration, "the independent (man) does not vacillate," this is the second consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

29. 'The independent (man) does not vacillate, and the dependent (man) seizing upon existence in one way or in another, does not overcome samsāra. (752).

30. 'Looking upon this as misery (and seeing) great danger in things you depend upon, let a Bhikkhu wander about independent, not seizing (upon anything), thoughtful. (753)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "The formless (beings), O Bhikkhus, are calmer than the rūpas (for ruppa, i.e. form-possessing)," this is one consideration, "cessation is calmer than the formless," this is another consideration, "thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers

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the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

31. 'Those beings who are possessed of form, and those who dwell in the formless (world), not knowing cessation, have to go to re-birth. (754)

32. 'But those who, having fully comprehended the forms, stand fast in the formless (worlds), those who are liberated in the cessation, such beings leave death behind. (755)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "What has been considered true by the world of men, together with the gods, Māra, Brahman, and amongst the Samanas, Brāmanas, gods, and men, that has by the noble through their perfect knowledge been well seen to be really false," this is one consideration; "what, O Bhikkhus, has been considered false by the world of men, together with the gods, Māra, Brahman, and amongst the Samanas, Brāmanas, gods, and men, that has by the noble through their perfect knowledge been well seen to be really true," this is another consideration. Thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat,

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(and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke:

33. 'Seeing the real in the unreal, the world of men and gods dwelling in name and form[1], he thinks: "This is true." (756)

34. 'Whichever way they think (it), it becomes otherwise, for it is false to him, and what is false is perishable[2]. (?) (757)

35. 'What is not false, the Nibbāna, that the noble conceive as true, they verily from the comprehension of truth are free from desire (and) perfectly happy[3]. (758)

'"Should there be a perfect consideration of the Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and how there is: "What, O Bhikkhus, has been considered pleasure by the world of men, gods, Māra, Brahman, and amongst the Samanas, Brāmanas, gods, and men, that has by the noble by (their) perfect knowledge been well seen to be really pain," this is one consideration; "what, O Bhikkhus, has been considered pain by the world of men, gods, Māra, Brahman, and amongst the Samanas, Brāhmanas, gods, and men, that has by the noble by their perfect knowledge been well seen to be really pleasure," this is the second consideration. Thus, O

[1. Nāmarūpasmim, 'individuality.'

2. Yena yena hi mańńanti
Tato tam hoti ańńathā,
Tam hi tassa musā hoti,
Mosadhammam hi ittaram.

3. Amosadhammam nibbānam
Tad ariyā sakkato vidū,
Te ye sakkābhisamayā
Nikkhātā parinibbutā.]

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Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu who considers the Dyad duly, who is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected: in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an Anāgāmin (one who does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said so, the Master further spoke:

36. 'Form, sound, taste, smell, and touch are all wished for, pleasing and charming (things) as long as they last, so it is said. (759)

37. 'By you, by the world of men and gods these (things) are deemed a pleasure, but when they cease it is deemed pain by them. (760)

38. 'By the noble the cessation of the existing body is regarded as pleasure; this is the opposite of (what) the wise in all the world (hold)[1]. (761)

39. 'What fools say is pleasure that the noble say is pain, what fools say is pain that the noble know as pleasure:--see here is a thing difficult to understand, here the ignorant are confounded. (762)

40. 'For those that are enveloped there is gloom, for those that do not see there is darkness, and for the good it is manifest, for those that see there is light; (even being) near, those that are ignorant of the way and the Dhamma, do not discern (anything)[2]. (763)

[1. Sukhan ti dittham ariyehi
Sakkāyass' uparodhanam,
Pakkanīkam idam hoti
Sabbalokena passatam.

2. Nivutānam tamo hotī
Andhakāro apassatam,
Satań ka vivatam hoti
Āloko passatām iva,
Santike na vigānanti
Magadhammass' akovidā.]

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41. 'By those that are overcome by the passions of existence, by those that follow the stream of existence, by those that have entered the realm of Māra, this Dhamma is not perfectly understood. (764)

42. 'Who except the noble deserve the well-understood state (of Nibbāna)? Having perfectly conceived this state, those free from passion are completely extinguished[1].' (765)

This spoke Bhagavat. Glad those Bhikkhus rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat. While this explanation was being given, the minds of sixty Bhikkhus, not seizing (upon anything), were liberated.

Dvayatānupassanāsutta is ended.

Mahāvagga, the third.

[1. Ko nu ańńatra-m-ariyehi
Padam sambuddham arahati
Yam padam samma-d-ańńāya
Parinibbanti anāsavā.]