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Agaliha
June 24th, 2008, 02:18 AM
I. URAGAVAGGA.




1. URAGASUTTA.



The Bhikkhu who discards all human passions is compared to a snake that casts his skin.--Text and translation in Fr. Spiegel's Anecdota Pâlica.
1. He who restrains his anger when it has arisen, as (they) by medicines (restrain) the poison of the snake spreading (in the body), that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (1)

2. He who has cut off passion entirely, as (they cut off) the lotus-flower growing in a lake, after diving (into the water), that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (2)

3. He who has cut off desire entirely, the flowing, the quickly running, after drying it up, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (3)

4. He who has destroyed arrogance entirely, as the flood (destroys) a very frail bridge of reeds, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (4)

5. He who has not found any essence in the existences, like one that looks for flowers on fig-trees, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (5)

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6. He in whose breast there are no feelings of anger, who has thus overcome reiterated existence, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (6)

7. He whose doubts are scattered, cut off entirely inwardly, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (7)

8. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was left behind, who overcame all this (world of) delusion, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (8)

9. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was left behind, having seen that all this in the world is false, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (9)

10. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was left behind, being free from covetousness, (seeing) that all this is false, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (10)

11. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was left behind, being free from passion, (seeing) that all this is false, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (11)

12. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was left behind, being free from hatred, (seeing) that all this is false, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (12)

13. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was left behind, being free from folly, (seeing) that all this is false, that Bhikkhu leaves his and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (13)

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14. He to whom there are no affections whatsoever, whose sins are extirpated from the root, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (14)

15. He to whom there are no (sins) whatsoever originating in fear, which are the causes of coming back to this shore, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (15)

16. He to whom there are no (sins) whatsoever originating in desire, which are the causes of binding (men) to existence, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (16)

17. He who, having left the five obstacles, is free from suffering, has overcome doubt, and is without pain, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore. as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (17)

Uragasutta is ended.


2. DHANIYASUTTA.



A dialogue between the rich herdsman Dhaniya and Buddha, the one rejoicing in his worldly security and the other in his religious belief.--This beautiful dialogue calls to mind the parable in the Gospel of S. Luke xii.16 (http://sacred-texts.com/bib/kjv/luk.htm#12:16).
1. 'I have boiled (my) rice, I have milked (my cows),'--so said the herdsman Dhaniya,--'I am living together with my fellows near the banks of the Mahî (river), (my) house is covered, the fire is kindled: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (18)

2. 'I am free from anger, free from stubbornness,'--so said Bhagavat,--'I am abiding for one night near the banks of the Mahî (river), my house

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is uncovered, the fire (of passions) is extinguished: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (19)

3. 'Gad-flies are not to be found (with me),'--so said the herdsman Dhaniya,--'in meadows abounding with grass the cows are roaming, and they can endure rain when it comes: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (20)

4. '(By me) is made a well-constructed raft,'--so said Bhagavat,--'I have passed over (to Nibbâna), I have reached the further bank, having overcome the torrent (of passions); there is no (further) use for a raft: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (21)

5. 'My wife is obedient, not wanton,'--so said the herdsman Dhaniya,--'for a long time she has been living together (with me), she is winning, and I hear nothing wicked of her: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (22)

6. 'My mind is obedient, delivered (from all worldliness),'--so said Bhagavat,--'it has for a long time been highly cultivated and well-subdued, there is no longer anything wicked in me: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (23)

7. 'I support myself by my own earnings,'--so said the herdsman Dhaniya,--'and my children are (all) about me, healthy; I hear nothing wicked of them: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (24)

8. 'I am no one's servant,'--so said Bhagavat,--'with what I have gained I wander about in all the world, there is no need (for me) to serve: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (25)

9. 'I have cows, I have calves,'-- so said the herdsman Dhaniya;--'I have cows in calf and heifers, and I have also a bull as lord over the cows: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (26)

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10. 'I have no cows, I have no calves,'--so said Bhagavat,--'I have no cows in calf and no heifers, and I have no bull as a lord over the cows: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky! (27)

11. 'The stakes are driven in, and cannot be shaken,'--so said the herdsman Dhaniya,--'the ropes are made of muńga grass, new and well-made, the cows will not be able to break them: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (28)

12. 'Having, like a bull, rent the bonds; having, like an elephant, broken through the galukkhi creeper, I shall not again enter into a womb: therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (29)

Then at once a shower poured down, filling both sea and land. Hearing the sky raining, Dhaniya spoke thus:

13. 'No small gain indeed (has accrued) to us since we have seen Bhagavat; we take refuge in thee, O (thou who art) endowed with the eye (of wisdom); be thou our master, O great Muni!' (30)

14. 'Both my wife and myself are obedient; (if) we lead a holy life before Sugata, we shall conquer birth and death, and put an end to pain.' (31)

15. 'He who has sons has delight in sons,'--so said the wicked Mâra,--'he who has cows has delight likewise in cows; for upadhi (substance) is the delight of man, but he who has no upadhi has no delight.' (32)

16. 'He who has sons has care with (his) sons,'--so said Bhagavat,--'he who has cows has likewise care with (his) cows; for upadhi (is the cause of) people's cares, but he who has no upadhi has no care.' (33)

Dhaniyasutta is ended.

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3. KHAGGA VISÂNASUTTA.



Family life and intercourse with others should be avoided, for society has all vices in its train; therefore one should leave the corrupted state of society and lead a solitary life.
1. Having laid aside the rod against all beings, and not hurting any of them, let no one wish for a son, much less for a companion, let him wander alone like a rhinoceros[1]. (34)

2. In him who has intercourse (with others) affections arise, (and then) the pain which follows affection; considering the misery that originates in affection let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (35)

3. He who has compassion on his friends and confidential (companions) loses (his own) advantage, having a fettered mind; seeing this danger in friendship let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (36)

4. Just as a large bamboo tree (with its branches) entangled (in each other, such is) the care one has with children and wife; (but) like the shoot of a bamboo not clinging (to anything) let one wander alone like a rhinoceros[2]. (37)

5. As a beast unbound in the forest goes feeding at pleasure, so let the wise man, considering (only his) own will, wander alone like a rhinoceros. (38)

6. There is (a constant) calling in the midst of company, both when sitting, standing, walking, and going away; (but) let one, looking (only) for freedom from desire and for following his own will, wander alone like a rhinoceros. (39)

7. There is sport and amusement in the midst of

[1. Comp Dhp. v. 142 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1012.htm#pp_142).

2. Comp. Dhp. v. 345 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1026.htm#pp_345).]

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company, and for children there is great affection; (although) disliking separation from his dear friends, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (40)

8. He who is at home in (all) the four regions and is not hostile (to any one), being content with this or that, overcoming (all) dangers fearlessly, let him wander alone like a rhinoceros. (41)

9. Discontented are some pabbagitas (ascetics), also some gahatthas (householders) dwelling in houses; let one, caring little about other people's children, wander alone like a rhinoceros. (42)

10. Removing the marks of a gihin (a householder) like a Kovilâra tree whose leaves are fallen, let one, after cutting off heroically the ties of a gihin, wander alone like a rhinoceros. (43)

11. If one acquires a clever companion, an associate righteous and wise, let him, overcoming all dangers, wander about with him glad and, thoughtful[1]. (44)

12. If one does not acquire a clever companion, an associate righteous and wise, then as a king abandoning (his) conquered kingdom, let him wander alone like a rhinoceros[2]. (45)

13. Surely we ought to praise the good luck of having companions, the best (and such as are our) equals ought to be sought for; not having acquired such friends let one, enjoying (only) allowable things, wander alone like a rhinoceros[3]. (46)

14. Seeing bright golden (bracelets), well-wrought by the goldsmith, striking (against each other when there are) two on one arm, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (47)

[1. Comp. Dhp. v. 328 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1025.htm#pp_328).

2. Comp. Dhp. v. 329 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1025.htm#pp_329).

3. Comp. Dhp. v. 61 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1007.htm#pp_61).]

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15. Thus (if I join myself) with another I shall swear or scold; considering this danger in future, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (48)

16. The sensual pleasures indeed, which are various, sweet, and charming, under their different shapes agitate the mind; seeing the misery (originating) in sensual pleasures, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (49)

17. These (pleasures are) to me calamities, boils, misfortunes, diseases, sharp pains, and dangers; seeing this danger (originating) in sensual pleasures, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (50)

18. Both cold and heat, hunger and thirst, wind and a burning sun, and gad-flies and snakes--having overcome all these things, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros[1]. (51)

19. As the elephant, the strong, the spotted, the large, after leaving the herd walks at pleasure in the forest, even so let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (52)

20. For him who delights in intercourse (with others, even) that is inconvenient which tends to temporary deliverance; reflecting on the words of (Buddha) the kinsman of the Âdikka family, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (53)

21. The harshness of the (philosophical) views I have overcome, I have acquired self-command, I have attained to the way (leading to perfection), I am in possession of knowledge, and not to be led by others; so speaking, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (54)

22. Without covetousness, without deceit, without

[1. Comp. Gâtaka I p. 93.]

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craving, without detraction, having got rid of passions and folly, being free from desire in all the world, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (55)

23. Let one avoid a wicked companion who teaches what is useless and has gone into what is wrong, let him not cultivate (the society of) one who is devoted (to and) lost in sensual pleasures, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (56)

24. Let one cultivate (the society of) a friend who is learned and keeps the Dhamma, who is magnanimous and wise; knowing the meaning (of things and) subduing his doubts, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (57)

25. Not adorning himself, not looking out for sport, amusement, and the delight of pleasure in the world, (on the contrary) being loath of a life of dressing, speaking the truth, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (58)

26. Having left son and wife, father and mother, wealth, and corn, and relatives, the different objects of desire, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (59)

27. 'This is a tie, in this there is little happiness, little enjoyment, but more of pain, this is a fish-hook,' so having understood, let a thoughtful man wander alone like a rhinoceros. (60)

28: Having torn the ties, having broken the net as a fish in the water, being like a fire not returning to the burnt place, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (61)

29. With downcast eyes, and not prying[1], with his senses guarded, with his mind protected free from

[1. Na ka pâdalolo ti ekassa dutiyo dvinnam tatiyo ti evam ganamaggham pavisitukâmatâya kandűyamânapâdo viya abhavanto dîghakârika-anavatthakârikavirato vâ. Commentator.]

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passion, not burning (with lust), let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (62)

30. Removing the characteristics of a gihin (householder), like a Pârikhatta tree whose leaves are cut off, clothed in a yellow robe after wandering away (from his house), let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (63)

31. Not being greedy of sweet things, not being unsteady, not supporting others, going begging from house to house, having a mind which is not fettered to any household, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (64)

32. Having left the five obstacles of the mind, having dispelled all sin, being independent, having cut off the sin of desire, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (65)

33. Having thrown behind (himself bodily) pleasure and pain, and previously (mental) joy and distress, having acquired equanimity, tranquillity, purity, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (66)

34. Strenuous for obtaining the supreme good (i.e. Nibbâna), with a mind free from attachment, not living in idleness, being firm, endowed with bodily and mental strength, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (67)

35. Not abandoning seclusion and meditation, always wandering in (accordance with) the Dhammas[1], seeing misery in the existences, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros[2]. (68)

36. Wishing for the destruction of desire (i.e. Nibbâna), being careful, no fool, learned, strenuous, considerate, restrained, energetic, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (69)

[1. Dhammesu nikkam anudhammakarî.

2. Comp. Dhp. v. 20 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1003.htm#pp_20).]

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37. Like a lion not trembling at noises, like the wind not caught in a net, like a lotus not stained by water, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (70)

38. As a lion strong by his teeth, after overcoming (all animals), wanders victorious as the king of the animals, and haunts distant dwelling-places[1], (even so) let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (71)

39. Cultivating in (due) time kindness, equanimity, compassion, deliverance, and rejoicing (with others), unobstructed by the whole world, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (72)

40. Having abandoned both passion and hatred and folly, having rent the ties, not trembling in the loss of life, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros[2]. (73)

41. They cultivate (the society of others) and serve them for the sake of advantage; friends without a motive are now difficult to get, men know their own profit and are impure; (therefore) let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (74)

Khaggavisânasutta is ended.


4. KASIBHÂRADVÂGASUTTA.



The Brâhmana Kasibhâradvâga reproaches Gotama with idleness, but the latter convinces him that he (Buddha) also works, and so the Brâhmana is converted, and finally becomes a saint. Compare Sp. Hardy, A Manual of Buddhism, p. 214; Gospel of S. John v. 17 (http://sacred-texts.com/bib/kjv/joh.htm#5:17).
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt in Magadha at Dakkhinâgiri in the Brâmana village Ekanalâ. And at that time the Brâmana Kasibhâradvâga's five hundred

[1. Pantânîti dűrâni senâsanânîti vasatitthânâni. Commentator.

2. Comp. Dhp. v. 20 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1003.htm#pp_20).]

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ploughs were tied (to the yokes) in the sowing season. Then Bhagavat, in the morning, having put on his raiment and taken his bowl and robes, went to the place where the Brâmana Kasibhâradvâga's work (was going on). At that time the Brâmana Kasibhâradvâga's distribution of food took place. Then Bhagavat went to the place where the distribution of food took place, and having gone there, he stood apart. The Brâmana Kasibhâradvâga saw Bhagavat standing there to get alms, and having seen him, he said this to Bhagavat:

'I, O Samana, both plough and sow, and having ploughed and sown, I eat; thou also, O Samana, shouldst plough and sow, and having ploughed and sown, thou shouldst eat.'

'I also, O Brâmana, both plough and sow, and having ploughed and sown, I eat,' so said Bhagavat.

'Yet we do not see the yoke, or the plough, or the ploughshare, or the goad, or the oxen of the venerable Gotama.'

And then the venerable Gotama spoke in this way:

'I also, O Brâmana, both plough and sow, and having ploughed and sown, I eat,' so said Bhagavat.

Then the Brâmana Kasibhâradvâga addressed Bhagavat in a stanza:

1. 'Thou professest to be a ploughman, and yet we do not see thy ploughing; asked about (thy) ploughing, tell us (of it), that we may know thy ploughing.' (75)

2. Bhagavat answered: 'Faith is the seed, penance the rain, understanding my yoke and plough, modesty the pole of the plough, mind the tie, thoughtfulness my ploughshare and goad. (76)

3. 'I am guarded in respect of the body, I am

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guarded in respect of speech, temperate in food; I make truth to cut away (weeds), tenderness is my deliverance. (77)

4. 'Exertion is my beast of burden; carrying (me) to Nibbâna he goes without turning back to the place where having gone one does not grieve. (78)

5. 'So this ploughing is ploughed, it bears the fruit of immortality; having ploughed this ploughing one is freed from all pain.' (79)

Then the Brâmana Kasibhâradvâga, having poured rice-milk into a golden bowl, offered it to Bhagavat, saying, 'Let the venerable Bhagavat eat of the rice-milk; the venerable is a ploughman, for the venerable Gotama ploughs a ploughing that bears the fruit of immortality.'

6. Bhagavat said: 'What is acquired by reciting stanzas is not to be eaten by me; this is, O Brâmana, not the Dhamma of those that see rightly; Buddha rejects what is acquired by reciting stanzas, this is the conduct (of Buddhas) as long as the Dhamma exists. (80)

7. 'One who is an accomplished great Isi, whose passions are destroyed and whose misbehaviour has ceased, thou shouldst serve with other food and drink, for this is the field for one who looks for good works[1].' (81)

'To whom then, O Gotama, shall I give this rice-milk?' so said Kasibhâradvâga.

'I do not see, O Brâmana, in the world (of men)

[1. Ańńena ka kevalinam mahesim
Khînâsavam kukkukkavűpasantam
Annena pânena upatthahassu,
Khettam hi tam puńńapekhassa hoti.
Cf. Sundarikabhâradvâga v. 28 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1035.htm#pp_481).]

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and gods and Mâras and Brahmans, amongst beings comprising gods and men, and Samanas and Brâmanas, any by whom this rice-milk when eaten can be properly digested with the exception of Tathâgata, or a disciple of Tathâgata. Therefore, O Brâmana, thou shalt throw this rice-milk in (a place where there is) little grass, or cast it into water with no worms: so said Bhagavat.

Then the Brâmana Kasibhâradvâga threw the rice-milk into some water with no worms. Then the rice-milk thrown into the water splashed, hissed, smoked in volumes; for as a ploughshare that has got hot during the day when thrown into the water splashes, hisses, and smokes in volumes, even so the rice-milk (when) thrown into the water splashed, hissed, and smoked in volumes.

Then the Brâmana Kasibhâradvâga alarmed and terrified went up to Bhagavat, and after having approached and fallen with his head at Bhagavat's feet, he said this to Bhagavat:

'It is excellent, O venerable Gotama! It is excellent, O venerable Gotama! As one raises what has been overthrown, or reveals what has been hidden, or tells the way to him who has gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark that those who have eyes may see the objects, even so by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the Dhamma (has been) illustrated. I take refuge in the venerable Gotama and in the Dhamma and in the Assembly of Bhikkhus; I wish to receive the pabbaggâ, I wish to receive the upasampadâ (the robe and the orders) from the venerable Gotama,' so said Kasibhâradvâga.

Then the Brâmana Kasibhâradvâga received the

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pabbaggâ from Bhagavat, and he received also the upasampadâ; and the venerable Bhâradvâaga having lately received the upasampadâ, leading a solitary, retired, strenuous, ardent, energetic life, lived after having in a short time in this existence by his own understanding ascertained and possessed himself of that highest perfection of a religious life for the sake of which men of good family rightly wander, away from their houses to houseless state. 'Birth had been destroyed, a religious life had been led, what was to be done had been done, there was nothing else (to be done) for this existence,' so he perceived, and the venerable Bhâradvâaga became one of the arahats (saints).

Kasibhâradvâgasutta is ended.


5. KUNDASUTTA.



Buddha describes the four different kinds of Samanas to Kunda, the smith.
1. 'I ask the Muni of great understanding,'--so said Kunda, the smith,--'Buddha, the lord of the Dhamma, who is free from desire, the best of bipeds, the most excellent of charioteers, how many (kinds of) Samanas are there in the world; pray tell me that?' (82)

2. 'There are four (kinds of) Samanas, (there is) not a fifth, O Kunda,'--so said Bhagavat,--'these I will reveal to thee, being asked in person; (they are) Maggaginas and Maggadesakas, Maggagîvins and Maggadűsins.' (83)

3. 'Whom do the Buddhas call a Maggagina?'--so said Kunda, the smith,--'How is a Maggagghâyin

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unequalled? Being asked, describe to me a Maggagîvin, and reveal to me a Maggadűsin.' (84)

4. Bhagavat said: 'He who has overcome doubt, is without pain, delights in Nibbâna, is free from greed, a leader of the world of men and gods, such a one the Buddhas call a maggagina (that is, victorious by the way). (85)

5. 'He who in this world having known the best (i.e. Nibbâna) as the best, expounds and explains here the Dhamma, him, the doubt-cutting Muni, without desire, the second of the Bhikkhus they call a maggadesin (that is, teaching the way). (86)

6. 'He who lives in the way that has so well been taught in the Dhammapada, and is restrained, attentive, cultivating blameless words, him the third of the Bhikshus they call a maggagîvin (that is, living in the way[1]). (87)

7. 'He who although counterfeiting the virtuous is forward, disgraces families, is impudent, deceitful, unrestrained, a babbler, walking in disguise, such a one is a maggadűsin (that is, defiling the way)[2]. (88)

8. 'He who has penetrated these (four Samanas), who is a householder, possessed of knowledge, a pupil of the venerable ones, wise, having known that they all are such,--having seen so, his faith is not lost; for how could he make the undepraved equal to the depraved and the pure equal to the impure?' (89)

Kundasutta is ended.

[1. Yo Dhammapade sudesite
Magge gîvati sańńato satîmâ
Anavaggapadâni sevamâno
Tatiyam bhikkhunam âhu maggagîvim.

2. Comp. Gâtaka II, p. 281.]

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6. PARÂBHAVASUTTA.



A dialogue between a deity and Buddha on the things by which a man loses and those by which he gains in this world.--Text by Grimblot, in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (1871), p. 237; translation by L. Feer, in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (1871), p. 309, and by Gogerly, reprinted in Journal Asiatique, t. xx (1872), p. 226.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Sâvatthî, in Getavana, in the park of Anâthapindika. Then when the night had gone, a certain deity of a beautiful appearance, having illuminated the whole Getavana, went up to Bhagavat, and having approached and saluted him, he stood apart, and standing apart that deity addressed Bhagavat in stanzas:

1. 'We ask (thee), Gotama, about a man that suffers loss; having come to ask, Bhagavat, (tell us) what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (90)

2. Bhagavat: 'The winner is easily known, easily known (is also) the loser: he who loves Dhamma is the winner, he who hates Dhamma is the loser.' (91)

3. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the first loser; tell (us) the second, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (92)

4. Bhagavat: 'Wicked men are dear to him, he does not do anything that is dear to the good, he approves of the Dhamma of the wicked,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (93)

5. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the second loser; tell us the third, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (94)

6. Bhagavat: 'The man who is drowsy, fond of society and without energy, lazy, given to anger,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (95)

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7. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the third loser; tell us the fourth, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (96)

8. Bhagavat: 'He who being rich does not support mother or father who are old or past their youth,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (97)

9. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the fourth loser; tell us the fifth, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (98)

10. Bhagavat: 'He who by falsehood deceives either a Brâmana or a Samana or any other mendicant,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (99)

11. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the fifth loser; tell us the sixth, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (100)

12. Bhagavat: 'The man who is possessed of much property, who has gold and food, (and still) enjoys alone his sweet things,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (101)

13. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the sixth loser; tell us the seventh, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (102)

14. Bhagavat: 'The man who proud of his birth, of his wealth, and of his family, despises his relatives,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (103)

15. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the seventh loser; tell us the eighth, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (104)

16. Bhagavat: 'The man who given to women, to strong drink, and to dice, wastes whatever he has gained,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (105)

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17. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the eighth loser; tell us the ninth, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (106)

18. Bhagavat: 'He who, not satisfied with his own wife, is seen with harlots and the wives of others,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (107)

19. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the ninth loser; tell us the tenth, O Bhagavat, what (is) the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (108)

20. Bhagavat: 'The man who, past his youth, brings home a woman with breasts like the timbaru fruit, and for jealousy of her cannot sleep,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (109)

21. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the tenth loser; tell us the eleventh, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (110)

22. Bhagavat: 'He who places in supremacy a woman given to drink and squandering, or a man of the same kind,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (111)

23. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the eleventh loser; tell us the twelfth, O Bhagavat, what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (112)

24. Bhagavat: 'He who has little property, (but) great desire, is born in a Khattiya family and wishes for the kingdom in this world,--that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (113)

25. Having taken into consideration these losses in the world, the wise, venerable man, who is endowed with insight, cultivates the happy world (of the gods).' (114)

Parâbhavasutta is ended.

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7. VASALASUTTA.



The Brâmana Aggikabhâradvâga is converted by Buddha, after hearing his definition of an outcast, illustrated by the story of Mâtanga, told in the Mâtangagâtaka. Comp. Sp. Hardy, The Legends and Theories of the Buddhists, p. 49.--Text and translation in Alwis's Buddhist Nirvâna, p. 119.
So it was heard by me: At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Sâvatthî, in Getavana, in the park of Anâthapindika. Then Bhagavat having put on his raiment in the morning, and having taken his bowl and his robes, entered Sâvatthî for alms. Now at that time in the house of the Brâmana Aggikabhâradvâga the fire was blazing, the offering brought forth. Then Bhagavat going for alms from house to house in Sâvatthî went to the house of the Brâmana Aggikabhâradvâga. The Brâmana Aggikabhâradvâga saw Bhagavat coming at a distance, and seeing him he said this: 'Stay there, O Shaveling; (stay) there, O Samanaka (i.e. wretched Samana); (stay) there, O Vasalaka (i.e. outcast)!'

This having been said, Bhagavat replied to the Brâmana Aggikabhâradvâga: 'Dost thou know, O Brâmana, an outcast, or the things that make an outcast?'

'No, O venerable Gotama, I do not know an outcast, or the things that make an outcast; let the venerable Gotama teach me this so well that I may know an outcast, or the things that make an outcast."

'Listen then, O Brâmana, attend carefully, I will tell (thee).'

'Even so, O venerable one,' so the Brâmana Aggikabhâradvâga replied to Bhagavat.

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Then Bhagavat said this:

1. 'The man who is angry and bears hatred, who is wicked and hypocritical, who has embraced wrong views, who is deceitful, let one know him as an outcast. (115)

2. 'Whosoever in this world harms living beings, whether once or twice born, and in whom there is no compassion for living beings, let one know him as an outcast. (116)

3. 'Whosoever destroys or lays siege to villages and towns, and is known as an enemy, let one know him as an outcast. (117)

4. 'Be it in the village or in the wood, whosoever appropriates by theft what is the property of others and what has not been given, let one know him as an outcast. (118)

5. 'Whosoever, having really contracted a debt, runs away when called upon (to pay), saying, "There is no debt (that I owe) thee," let one know him as an outcast. (119)

6. 'Whosoever for love of a trifle having killed a man going along the road, takes the trifle, let one know him as an outcast. (120)

7. 'The man who for his own sake or for that of others or for the sake of wealth speaks falsely when asked as a witness, let one know him as an outcast. (121)

8. 'Whosoever is seen with the wives of relatives or of friends either by force or with their consent, let one know him as an outcast. (122)

9. 'Whosoever being rich does not support mother or father when old and past their youth, let one know him as an outcast. (123)

10. 'Whosoever strikes or by words annoys mother

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or father, brother, sister, or mother-in-law, let one know him as an outcast. (124)

11. 'Whosoever, being asked about what is good, teaches what is bad and advises (another, while) concealing (something from him), let one know him as an outcast. (125)

12. 'Whosoever, having committed a bad deed, hopes (saying), "Let no one know me" (as having done it, who is) a dissembler, let one know him as an outcast. (126)

13. 'Whosoever, having gone to another's house and partaken of his good food, does not in return honour him when he comes, let one know him as an outcast. (127)

14. 'Whosoever by falsehood deceives either a Brâhmana or a Samana or any other mendicant, let one know him as an outcast. (128)

15. 'Whosoever by words annoys either a Brâhmana or a Samana when meal-time has come and does not give (him anything), let one know him as an outcast. (129)

16. 'Whosoever enveloped in ignorance in this world predicts what is not (to take place), coveting a trifle, let one know him as an outcast. (130)

17. 'Whosoever exalts himself and despises others, being mean by his pride, let one know him as an outcast. (131)

18. 'Whosoever is a provoker and is avaricious, has sinful desires, is envious, wicked, shameless, and fearless of sinning, let one know him as an outcast. (132)

19. 'Whosoever reviles Buddha or his disciple, be he a wandering mendicant (paribbâga) or a householder (gahattha), let one know him as an outcast. (133)

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20. 'Whosoever without being a saint (arahat) pretends to be a saint, (and is) a thief in all the worlds including that of Brahman, he is indeed the lowest outcast; (all) these who have been described by me to you are indeed called outcasts. (134)

21. 'Not by birth does one become an outcast, not by birth does one become a Brâmana; by deeds one becomes an outcast, by deeds one becomes a Brâmana. (135)

22. 'Know ye this in the way that this example of mine (shows): There was a Kandâla of the Sopâka caste, well known as Mâtanga. (136)

23. 'This Mâtanga reached the highest fame, such as was very difficult to obtain, and many Khattiyas and Brâmanas went to serve him. (137)

24. 'He having mounted the vehicle of the gods, (and entered) the high road (that is) free from dust, having abandoned sensual desires, went to the Brahma world. (138)

25. 'His birth did not prevent him from being re-born in the Brahma world; (on the other hand) there are Brâmanas, born in the family of preceptors, friends of the hymns (of the Vedas), (139)

26. 'But they are continually caught in sinful deeds, and are to be blamed in this world, while in the coming (world) hell (awaits them); birth does not save them from hell nor from blame. (140)

27. '(Therefore) not by birth does one become an outcast, not by birth does one become a Brâmana, by deeds one becomes an outcast, by deeds one becomes a Brâmana.' (141)

This having been said, the Brâmana Aggikabhâradvâga answered Bhagavat as follows:

'Excellent, O venerable Gotama! Excellent, O

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venerable Gotama! As one, O venerable Gotama, raises what has been overthrown, or reveals what has been hidden, or tells the way to him who has gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark that those who have eyes may see the objects, even so by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the Dhamma has been illustrated; I take refuge in the venerable Gotama and in the Dhamma and in the Assembly of Bhikkhus. Let the venerable Gotama accept me as an upâsaka (a follower, me) who henceforth for all my life have taken refuge (in him).'

Vasalasutta is ended.


8. METTASUTTA.



A peaceful mind and goodwill towards all beings are praised.--Text by Grimblot in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (1871), p. 250, and by Childers in Khuddaka Pâtha, p. 15; translation (?) by Gogerly in the Ceylon Friend, 1839, p. 211, by Childers in Kh. Pâtha and by L. Feer in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (1871), p. 328.
1. Whatever is to be done by one who is skilful in seeking (what is) good, having attained that tranquil state (of Nibbâna):--Let him be able and upright and conscientious and of soft speech, gentle, not proud, (142)

2. And contented and easily supported and having few cares, unburdened and with his senses calmed and wise, not arrogant, without (showing) greediness (when going his round) in families. (143)

3. And let him not do anything mean for which others who are wise might reprove (him); may all beings be happy and secure, may they be happy-minded. (144)

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4. Whatever living beings there are, either feeble or strong, all either long or great, middle-sized, short, small or large, (145)

5. Either seen or which are not seen, and which live far (or) near, either born or seeking birth, may all creatures be happy-minded. (146)

6. Let no one deceive another, let him not despise (another) in any place, let him not out of anger or resentment wish harm to another. (147)

7. As a mother at the risk of her life watches over her own child, her only child, so also let every one cultivate a boundless (friendly) mind towards all beings. (148)

8. And let him cultivate goodwill towards all the world, a boundless (friendly) mind, above and below and across, unobstructed, without hatred, without enmity. (149)

9. Standing, walking or sitting or lying, as long as he be awake, let him devote himself to this mind; this (way of) living they say is the best in this world. (150)

10. He who, not having embraced (philosophical) views, is virtuous, endowed with (perfect) vision, after subduing greediness for sensual pleasures, will never again go to a mother's womb. (151)

Mettasutta is ended.


9. HEMAVATASUTTA.



A dialogue between two Yakkhas on the qualities of Buddha. They go to Buddha, and after having their questions answered they, together with ten hundred Yakkhas, become the followers of Buddha.
1. 'To-day is the fifteenth, a fast day; a lovely

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night has come,'--so said the Yakkha Sâtâgira,--'let us (go and) see the renowned Master Gotama.' (152)

2. 'Is the mind of such a one well disposed towards all beings?'--so said the Yakkha Hemavata,--'are his thoughts restrained as to things wished for or not wished for?' (153)

3. 'His mind is well disposed towards all beings, (the mind) of such a one,'--so said the Yakkha Sâtâgira,--'and his thoughts are restrained as to things wished for or not wished for.' (154)

4. 'Does he not take what has not been given (to him)?'--so said the Yakkha Hemavata,--'is he self-controlled (in his behaviour) to living beings? is he far from (a state of) carelessness? does he not abandon meditation?' (155)

5. 'He does not take what has not been given (to him),'--so said the Yakkha Sâtâgira,--'and he is self-controlled (in his behaviour) to living beings, and he is far from (a state of) carelessness; Buddha does not abandon meditation.' (156)

6. 'Does he not speak falsely?'--so said the Yakkha Hemavata,--'is he not harsh-spoken? does he not utter slander? does he not talk nonsense?' (157)

7. 'He does not speak falsely,'--so said the Yakkha Sâtâgira,--'he is not harsh-spoken, he does not utter slander, with judgment he utters what is good sense.' (158)

8. 'Is he not given to sensual pleasures?'--so said the Yakkha Hemavata,--'is his mind undisturbed? has he overcome folly? does he see clearly in (all) things (dhammas)?' (159)

9. 'He is not given to sensual pleasures,'--so said the Yakkha Sâtâgira,--'and his mind is undisturbed;

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he has overcome all folly; Buddha sees clearly in (all) things.' (160)

10. 'Is he endowed with knowledge?'--so said the Yakkha Hemavata,--'is his conduct pure? have his passions been destroyed? is there no new birth (for him)?' (161)

11. 'He is endowed with knowledge,'--so said the Yakkha Sâtâgira,--'and his conduct is pure; all his passions have been destroyed; there is no new birth for him. (162)

12. 'The mind of the Muni is accomplished in deed and word; Gotama, who is accomplished by his knowledge and conduct, let us (go and) see. (163)

13. 'Come, let us (go and) see Gotama, who has legs like an antelope, who is thin, who is wise, living on little food, not covetous, the Muni who is meditating in the forest. (164)

14. 'Having gone to him who is a lion amongst those that wander alone and does not look for sensual pleasures, let us ask about the (means of) deliverance from the snares of death. (165)

15. 'Let us ask Gotama, the preacher, the expounder, who has penetrated all things, Buddha who has overcome hatred and fear.' (166)

16. 'In what has the world originated?'--so said the Yakkha Hemavata,--'with what is the world intimate? by what is the world afflicted, after having grasped at what?' (167)

17. 'In six the world has originated, O Hemavata,'--so said Bhagavat,--'with six it is intimate, by six the world is afflicted, after having grasped at six.' (168)

18. Hemavata said: 'What is the grasping by

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which the world is afflicted? Asked about salvation, tell (me) how one is released from pain?' (169)

19. Bhagavat said: 'Five pleasures of sense are said to be in the world, with (the pleasure of) the mind as the sixth; having divested oneself of desire for these, one is thus released from pain. (170)

20. 'This salvation of the world has been told to you truly, this I tell you: thus one is released from pain.' (171)

21. Hemavata said: 'Who in this world crosses the stream (of existence)? who in this world crosses the sea? who does not sink into the deep, where there is no footing and no support?' (172)

22. Bhagavat said: 'He who is always endowed with virtue, possessed of understanding, well composed, reflecting within himself, and thoughtful, crosses the stream that is difficult to cross. (173)

23. 'He who is disgusted with sensual pleasures, who has overcome all bonds and destroyed joy, such a one does not sink into the deep.' (174)

24. Hemavata said: 'He who is endowed with a profound understanding, seeing what is subtile, possessing nothing, not clinging to sensual pleasures, behold him who is in every respect liberated, the great Isi, walking in the divine path. (175)

25. 'He who has got a great name, sees what is subtile, imparts understanding; and does not cling to the abode of sensual pleasures, behold him, the all-knowing, the wise, the great Isi, walking in the noble path. (176)

26. 'A good sight indeed (has met) us to-day, a good daybreak, a beautiful rising, (for) we have seen the perfectly enlightened (sambuddham), who has crossed the stream, and is free from passion. (177)

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27. 'These ten hundred Yakkhas, possessed of supernatural power and of fame, they all take refuge in thee, thou art our incomparable Master. (178)

28. 'We will wander about from village to village, from mountain to mountain, worshipping the perfectly enlightened and the perfection of the Dhamma[1].' (179)

Hemavatasutta is ended.


10. ÂLAVAKASUTTA.



The Yakkha Âlavaka first threatens Buddha, then puts some questions to him which Buddha answers, whereupon Âlavaka is converted.
So it was heard by me:

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Âlavî, in the realm of the Yakkha Âlavaka. Then the Yakkha Âlavaka went to the place where Bhagavat dwelt, and having gone there he said this to Bhagavat:

'Come out, O Samana!'

'Yes, O friend!' so saying Bhagavat came out.

'Enter, O Samana!'

'Yes, O friend!' so saying Bhagavat entered.

A second time the Yakkha Âlavaka said this to Bhagavat: 'Come out, O Samana!'

'Yes, O friend!' so saying Bhagavat came out.

'Enter, O Samana!'

'Yes, O friend!' so saying Bhagavat entered.

A third time the Yakkha Âlavaka said this Bhagavat: 'Come out, O Samana!'

' Yes, O friend!' so saying Bhagavat came out.

'Enter, O Samana!'

[1. Dhammassa ka sudhammatam.]

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'Yes, O friend!' so saying Bhagavat entered.

A fourth time the Yakkha Âlavaka said this to Bhagavat: 'Come out, O Samana!'

'I shall not come out to thee, O friend, do what thou pleasest.'

'I shall ask thee a question, O Samana, if thou canst not answer it, I will either scatter thy thoughts or cleave thy heart, or take thee by thy feet and throw thee over to the other shore of the Gangâ.'

'I do not see, O friend, any one in this world nor in the world of gods, Mâras, Brahmans, amongst the beings comprising gods, men, Samanas, and Brâhmanas, who can either scatter my thoughts or cleave my heart, or take me by the feet and throw me over to the other shore of the Gangâ; however, O friend, ask what thou pleasest.'

Then the Yakkha Âlavaka addressed Bhagavat in stanzas:

1. 'What in this world is the best property for a man? what, being well done, conveys happiness? what is indeed the sweetest of sweet things? how lived do they call life the best?' (180)

2. Bhagavat said: 'Faith is in this world the best property for a man; Dhamma, well observed, conveys happiness; truth indeed is the sweetest of things; and that life they call the best which is lived with understanding.' (181)

3. Âlavaka said: 'How does one cross the stream (of existence)? how does one cross the sea? how does one conquer pain? how is one purified?' (182)

4. Bhagavat said: 'By faith one crosses the stream, by zeal the sea, by exertion one conquers pain, by understanding one is purified.' (183)

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5. Âlavaka said: 'How does one obtain understanding? how does one acquire wealth? how does one obtain fame? how does one bind friends (to himself)? how does one not grieve passing away from this world to the other?' (184)

6. Bhagavat said: 'He who believes in the Dhamma of the venerable ones as to the acquisition of Nibbâna, will obtain understanding from his desire to hear, being zealous and discerning. (185)

7. 'He who does what is proper, who takes the yoke (upon him and) exerts himself, will acquire wealth, by truth he will obtain fame, and being charitable he will bind friends (to himself). (186)

8. 'He who is faithful and leads the life of a householder, and possesses the following four Dhammas (virtues), truth, justice (dhamma), firmness, and liberality,--such a one indeed does not grieve when passing away. (187)

9. 'Pray, ask also other Samanas and Brâhmanas far and wide, whether there is found in this world anything greater than truth, self-restraint, liberality, and forbearance.' (188)

10. Âlavaka said: 'Why should I now ask Samanas and Brâhmanas far and wide? I now know what is my future good. (189)

11. 'For my good Buddha came to live at Âlavî; now I know where (i.e. on whom bestowed) a gift will bear great fruit. (190)

12. 'I will wander about from village to village, from town to town, worshipping the perfectly enlightened (sambuddha) and the perfection of the Dhamma.' (191)

Âlavakasutta is ended.

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11. VIGAYASUTTA.



A reflection on the worthlessness of the human body; a follower of Buddha only sees the body as it really is, and consequently goes to Nibbâna.--Comp. Gâtaka I, p. 146.
1. If either walking or standing, sitting or lying, any one contracts (or) stretches (his body, then) this is the motion of the body. (192)

2. The body which is put together with bones and sinews, plastered with membrane and flesh, and covered with skin, is not seen as it really is. (193)

3. It is filled with the intestines, the stomach, the lump of the liver, the abdomen, the heart, the lungs, the kidneys, the spleen. (194)

4. With mucus, saliva, perspiration, lymph, blood, the fluid that lubricates the joints, bile, and fat. (195)

5. Then in nine streams impurity flows always from it; from the eye the eye-excrement, from the ear the ear-excrement, (196)

6. Mucus from the nose, through the mouth it ejects at one time bile and (at other times) it ejects phlegm, and from (all) the body come sweat and dirt. (197)

7. Then its hollow head is filled with the brain. A fool led by ignorance thinks it a fine thing. (198)

8. And when it lies dead, swollen and livid, discarded in the cemetery, relatives do not care (for it). (199)

9. Dogs eat it and jackals, wolves and worms; crows and vultures eat it, and what other living creatures there are. (200)

10. The Bhikkhu possessed of understanding in this world, having listened to Buddha's words, he

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certainly knows it (i.e. the body) thoroughly, for he sees it as it really is. (201)

11. "As this (living body is) so is that (dead one), as this is so that (will be[1]); let one put away desire for the body, both as to its interior and as to its exterior." (202)

12. Such a Bhikkhu who has turned away from desire and attachment, and is possessed of understanding in this world, has (already) gone to the immortal peace, the unchangeable state of Nibbâna. (203)

13. This (body) with two feet is cherished (although) impure, ill-smelling, filled with various kinds of stench, and trickling here and there. (204)

14. He who with such a body thinks to exalt himself or despises others--what else (is this) but blindness? (205)

Vigayasutta is ended.


12. MUNISUTTA.



Definition of a Muni.
1. From acquaintanceship arises fear, from house-life arises defilement; the houseless state, freedom from acquaintanceship--this is indeed the view of a Muni. (206)

2. Whosoever, after cutting down the (sin that has) arisen, does not let (it again) take root and does not give way to it while springing up towards him, him

[1. Yathâ idam tathâ etam
Yathâ etam tathâ idam.]

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the solitarily wandering they call a Muni; such a great Isi has seen the state of peace[1]. (207)

3. Having considered the causes (of sin, and) killed the seed, let him not give way to desire for it; such a Muni who sees the end of birth and destruction (i.e. Nibbâna), after leaving reasoning behind, does not enter the number (of living beings)[2]. (208)

4. He who has penetrated all the resting-places[3] (of the mind, and) does not wish for any of them,--such a Muni indeed, free from covetousness and free from greediness, does not gather up (resting-places), for he has reached the other shore. (209)

5. The man who has overcome everything, who knows everything, who is possessed of a good understanding, undefiled in all things (dhamma), abandoning everything, liberated in the destruction of desire (i.e. Nibbâna), him the wise style a Muni[4]. (210)

6. The man who has the strength of understanding, is endowed with virtue and (holy) works, is composed, delights in meditation, is thoughtful, free from ties, free from harshness (akhila), and free from passion, him the wise style a Muni. (211)

7. The Muni that wanders solitarily, the zealous,

[1. Yo gâtam ukkhigga na ropayeyya
Gâyantam assa nânuppavekkhe
Tam âhu ekam muninam karantam,
Addakkhi so santipadam mahesi.

2. Samkhâya vatthűni pamâya bîgam
Sineham assa nânuppavekkhe,
Sa ve munî gâtikhayantadassî
Takkam pahâya na upeti samkham.

3. Nivesanâni. Comp. Dutthaka, v. 6.

4. Comp. Dhp. v. 353 (http://sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe10/sbe1026.htm#pp_353).]

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that is not shaken by blame and praise, like a lion not trembling at noises, like the wind not caught in a net, like a lotus not soiled by water, leading others, not led by others, him the wise style a Muni. (212)

8. Whosoever becomes firm as the post in a bathing-place, in whom others acknowledge propriety of speech, who is free from passion, and (endowed) with well-composed senses, such a one the wise style a Muni. (213)

9. Whosoever is firm, like a straight shuttle, and is disgusted with evil actions, reflecting on what is just and unjust, him the wise style a Muni. (214)

10. Whosoever is self-restrained and does not do evil, is a young or middle-aged Muni, self-subdued, one that should not be provoked (as) he does not provoke any, him the wise style a Muni. (215)

11. Whosoever, living upon what is given by others, receives a lump of rice from the top, from the middle or from the rest (of the vessel, and) does not praise (the giver) nor speak harsh words, him the wise style a Muni. (216)

12. The Muni that wanders about abstaining from sexual intercourse, who in his youth is not fettered in any case, is abstaining from the insanity of pride, liberated, him the wise style a Muni. (217)

13. The man who, having penetrated the world, sees the highest truth, such a one, after crossing the stream and sea (of existence), who has cut off all ties, is independent, free from passion, him indeed the wise style a Muni. (218)

14. Two whose mode of life and occupation are quite different, are not equal: a householder maintaining a wife, and an unselfish virtuous man. A householder (is intent) upon the destruction of

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other living creatures, being unrestrained; but a Muni always protects living creatures, being restrained. (219)

15. As the crested bird with the blue neck (the peacock) never attains the swiftness of the swan, even so a householder does not equal a Bhikkhu, a secluded Muni meditating in the wood. (220)

Munisutta is ended.

Uragavagga is ended.