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Agaliha
July 12th, 2011, 06:35 AM
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Rosmerta-Autun.jpg




In Gallo-Roman religion, Rosmerta was a goddess of fertility and abundance, her attributes being those of plenty such as the cornucopia. Rosmerta is attested by statues, and by inscriptions. In Gaul she was often depicted with the Roman god Mercury as her consort, but is sometimes found independently.

Iconography

A relief from Autun (ancient Augustodunum, the civitas capital of the Celtic Aedui), shows Rosmerta and Mercury seated together as a divine couple (see above). She holds a cornucopia, with Mercury holding a patera at her left side.

A bas-relief from Eisenberg (see left)[1] shows the couple in the same relative positions, with Rosmerta securely identified by the inscription.[2] Rosmerta holds a purse in her right hand and a patera in her left.

In a pair of statues from Paris depicting the couple, Rosmerta holds a cornucopia and a basket of fruits.

Rosmerta is shown by herself on a bronze statue from Fins d'Annency, where she sits on a rock holding a purse and, unusually, also bears the wings of Mercury on her head. A stone bas-relief from Escolives-Sainte-Camille[3] shows her bolding both a patera and a cornucopia.

Twenty-seven inscriptions to Rosmerta are listed by Jufer and Luginbühl,[4] distributed in France, Germany and Luxembourg, corresponding mainly to the Roman provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania Superior. An additional two inscriptions are known, one from Roman Dacia.[5]

An inscription from Metz[6] is a dedication (votum) to Mercury and Rosmerta jointly. Another from Eisenberg was made by a decurion in fulfillment of a vow to the couple jointly.[7]

In two inscriptions[8] both from Gallia Belgica, Rosmerta is given the epithet sacra, sacred. A lengthier inscription from Wasserbillig in Gallia Belgica[9] associates the divine couple with the dedication of a shrine (aedes), with "hospitable" rites to be celebrated.[10]

Etymology

The name Rosmerta is Gaulish, and is analysed as ro-smert-a. Smert means 'provider' or 'carer' and is also found in other Gaulish names such as Ad-smerio, Smertu-litani, Smerius, Σμερο, Smertae, Smertus, etc.[11] Ro- is a modifier meaning 'very' 'great' or 'most' as found in Ro-bili ('most-good'), Ro-cabalus ('great horse'), Ρο-βιος ('great life').[12] The -a ending is the typical Gaulish feminine singular nominative. The meaning is thus 'the Great Provider.'

From: Wiki (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosmerta)


In Gaulish Celtic mythology, Rosmerta was the goddess of fire, warmth, and abundance. A flower queen and hater of marriage, Rosmerta was also the queen of death. A Celtic goddess of fertility and wealth, whose cult was widely spread in Northeast Gaul. Rosmerta was the wife of Esus, the Gaulish Hermes. Her attributes are a cornucopia and a stick with two snakes.

From: here (http://www.pantheon.org/articles/r/rosmerta.html)


Rosmerta is a goddess known from a large number of inscriptions and images spread across the breadth of northern Gaul. There are at least 27 attested inscriptions to this goddess and a further two probable inscriptions. In Germany inscriptions have been found at: Neuenstadt as well as Niedaldorf, Niederemmel, Reinsport, Spechbach, Trier, Alzey, Cologne and Worms where she is invoked along with Roman Mars. An inscription found at Eisenberg reads DEO MERCU(rio) ET ROSMER(tae) M(arcus) ADITORIUS MEM(m)OR D(ecurio) C(ivitatis) ST() [PO]S(uit) l(ibens) M(erito) (To the God Mercury and Rosmerta, Marcus Aditorius to commemorate the Decurio of the town willingly and deservedly stipulated [this]) which is associated with a bas-relief that has the figure of Mercury on the right and a Rosmarta on the left. Here the goddess holds a purse in her right hand and a patera in her left. An inscription from Wasserbilig in Germany again associates Rosmerta with Mercury but also links her with the founding of a hospital: DEO MERCURIO [ET DEAE ROS]MERTIAE AEDEM C[UM SIGNIS ORNA]MENTISQUE OMN[IBUS FECIT] ACCEPTUS TABUL[ARIUS VIVIR] AUGUSTAL[IS DONAVIT?] ITEM HOSPITALIA [SACOR(um) CELE]BRANDORUM GR[ATIA PRO SE LIBE]RISQUE SUIS DED[ICAVIT 3] IULIAS LUPO [ET MAXIMO CO(n)S(ulibus)] (To the God Mars and the Goddess Roamerta, ). A single inscription has been found at Andernach in Luxembourg, where Rosmerta is, once agiain named with Mars. Likewise, a single inscription is known from Sarmizegtusa in Romania where Rosmerta is associated with Mercury, Mars, Mithras and Camulus. The remaining inscriptions all derive from France, namely: Alise-Sainte-Reine in the Côte d'Or, Champoulet in the Loiret, Vézelise in the Meurthe-et-Moselle, and Escolives-Sainte-Camille in the Yonne where she is invoked alone. At Lezoux in the Puy-de-Dôme she is invoked with Rigani. The remaining inscriptions, from Grand, Morelmaison and Soulosse in the Vosges as well as Sion in the Meurthe-et_moselle, Langres in the Haute-Marne, Magny-Lambert in the Côte d'Or and Metz in the Moselle all assoicate Rosmerta with Mars. The Metz inscription reads as follows: DEO MERCURIO ET ROSMERTAE MUSICUS LILLUTI FIL(ius) ET SUI(s) EX VOTO (To Mercury and Rosmerta, Musicus son of Lillutius offers this in his own name in fulfilment of a vow).



Two further fragmentary inscirptions, probably invoking Rosmerta have been found at Genainville, Val-d'Oise, France and at Aix-en-Prevence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France. The Aix inscription also invokes Mercury and associates Rosmerta, by assimilation, with another deity who is probably Ussia as Rosmerta Ussa.



Because of the number of images of Rosmerta available and her association with Mars, it is possible to attribute a nuber of images of goddesses across the Celtic world as being representations of Rosmerta. The image shown above, left, comes from Gloucester and is believed to represent Rosmerta and Mercury. A pair of statues from Paris depict Mercury and Rosmerta (who is depicted, partially reconstructed, above right), where she holds a cornucopia and a basket of fruit. Interestingly, Rosmerta is shown by herself on a bronze statue from Fins d'Annency, where she sits on a rock holding a purse. In this case her association with Mercury is made clear by the winged helm she bears upon her head. A similar statue (above centre) comes from Clermont-Ferrand in France and again shows Rosmerta bearing Mercury's winged helm upon her head. A statue from Champoulet-Loiret in France shows Rosmerta depicted with the same stance and attitude as the Clermont-Ferrand statue but this time she does not wear Mercury's winged helm. A further relef from Autun in the Loire, shows a seated Rosmerta bearing a cornucopia next to a partial figure of Mercury who holds a patera in his right hand.



Many commentators have held the name of Rosmerta to be of Latin origin, meaning 'Good Purveyor' or 'Great Provider'; however, recent publications of an extended reconstructed proto-Celtic lexicon allows us to reconstruct her name from the proto-Celtic lexical elements *ro- (most) and *smert- (provider/carer) with the feminie ending -a giving us 'great provider/great carer' as an interpretation. Both interpretations fit-in with Rosmerta's iconography (bearing a purse and cornucopia) as well as her association with sacred water held by her patera (healing) and her association with hospitals.



From: here (http://www.celtnet.org.uk/gods_r/rosmerta.html)



Rosmerta was a fertility goddess. Rosmerta was depicted as woman carry basket of fruit, possibly Cornucopia, suggests that she was goddess of abundance. She was sometimes seen as carrying a two-headed axe.

Rosmerta was the wife of Mercury. Rosmerta was associated with Maia, who was the mother of Mercury. Rosmerta was popular in Gaul (France).

From: here (http://www.timelessmyths.com/celtic/gallic.html#Rosmerta)


Rosmerta

Gallic goddess of prosperity, whose name means "great provider." According to the Romans, she was the consort of "Mercury," who here may be Lugus (the Gallic Lugh). All that is known of her cult are the remains of altars dedicated to her, with her image and that of "Mercury" carved into said altars. She is also depicted with a cornucopia and a cadeucus, appropriately. Her cult was centered in southern Gaul, and along the Rhone and Rhine, as well as South-west Britain.

Her connection to "Mercury," if we equate Mercury with Lugh, would possibly make her equivalent to the Irish goddess Tailtiu. I do not know of a Welsh equivalent.

From: here (http://www.maryjones.us/jce/rosmerta.html)


Rosmerta (Red-Glimmering One, Exceedingly Smeared One, Great Provider)
Smeared with sacrificial blood. Gaulish goddess of fire, warmth, fertility, wealth, and abundance. worshipped from France to Luxembourg. She is a flower queen and queen of death. She is depicted with a cornucopia and a sceptre with two snakes. In Mannheim, Germany she has a purse where a snake has laid its head. Her consort is the god Esus. On an altar found at Housesteads on the Roman Wall, she is using a plunger to turn milk into butter. The object beside her is very similar to the wooden churn with iron hoops still used on farms in northern England at the beginning of the 20th century. Her spring is at Gissey-la-veil, France. In Autun, Burgundy near the Saône River, Rosmerta is seated and holds a cornucopia while to the right, Mercury sits and holds a patera (a broad, shallow, saucerlike dish, used especially in making libations in ancient Rome). Rosmerta is shown by herself on a bronze statue from Fins d’Annency, where she sits on a rock holding a purse and bears the wings of Mercury on her head; A stone bas-relief from Escolives-Sainte-Camile she holds a patera and cornucopia. She also has a statue at Glanum, Provença. (64, 67, 140)

From: here (http://www.tartanplace.com/faery/goddess/rosmerta.html)


Also see:
Statue (http://www.royalathena.com/pages/romancatalog/Bronze/Female/SNB101.html)
A forum thread discussing her (http://caerfeddwyd.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=romanobrits&action=print&thread=1696)
GoogleBook previews that mention her (http://www.google.com/search?hl=&q=rosmerta+godess&sourceid=navclient-ff&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS254US254&ie=UTF-8#q=rosmerta+goddess&hl=en&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS254US254&prmd=ivns&um=1&ie=UTF-8&tbo=u&tbm=bks&source=og&sa=N&tab=wp&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=f9936118f4f65c22&biw=1024&bih=602)

On MW:
The Goddess Rosmerta (http://mysticwicks.com/showthread.php?17634-The-Goddess-Rosmerta)
Goddess Rosemerta or Rosmerta (http://mysticwicks.com/showthread.php?31656-Goddess-Rosemerta-or-Rosmerta&)