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Thread: Discovery of Hydraulic Cement (4400YA)

  1. #1
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    Discovery of Hydraulic Cement (4400YA)

    It has been known for Millennia that the mixture of Volcanic ash or Tuff (siliceous), pulverized with lime, produces hydraulic (i.e. water-resistant) cement.

    Stonehenge builders removing such Bluestones from the Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) rich Q and R Holes (circa 2400 BC) discovered hydraulic cement.

    Volcanic Ash (Tuff) in Ancient Construction
    http://preview.tinyurl.com/3qvctcz
    http://tinyurl.com/3qvctcz

    G-D

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Sep 2003
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    Historical Timeline of Concrete

    6500 BC
    A form of concrete dating to 6500 B.C. was discovered by archaeologists in Syria. The Image is "One of the dead towns in northern Syria."
    5600 BC
    The earliest concrete yet discovered in Europe was developed along the Danube River in Yugoslavia. Stone age hunters or fishermen mixed red lime, sand, gravel and water.
    4400 BC
    Stonehenge builders mixed Welsh pulverized Bluestone volcanic ash and tuff (Pozzolan) together with crushed in situ Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) lime.
    3000 BC
    Chinese used cementitious materials to hold bamboo together in their boats and in the Great Wall. The Chinese used concrete in Gansu Province in northwest China.
    2500 BC
    Egyptians mixed mud mixed with straw to bind dried bricks. Also furthered the discovery of lime and gypsum mortar as a binding agent for building the Pyramids.
    800 BC
    Babylonians and Assyrians used a bitumen to bind stone and bricks. This allowed them to combine both large and small stone objects together.
    600 BC
    Greeks discovered a natural Pozzolan on Santorini Island that developed hydraulic properties when mixed with lime. This made it possible to produce concrete that would harden under water, as well as in the air."
    586 BC
    Altar of Burnt Offering containing 7 gold artifacts filled with a Slurry of pulverized Bluestone (volcanic ash and tuff) aggregate and lime 4 ft (1.2m) below Heelstone, Stonehenge.
    400 BC
    Petra (Greek, "city of rock"), also known as Sila, ancient city of Arabia (now southwestern Jordan). The stronghold and treasure city of the Nabataeans, an Arab people.
    300 BC
    Romans used slaked lime and volcanic ash (Pozzolan), found near Pozzouli, Italy by the bay of Naples. Pliny the Elder reported a mortar mixture of 1 part lime to 4 parts sand. Vitruvius reported 2 parts of Pozzolan to 1 part lime.
    193 BC
    Porticus Aemilia made of bound stones to form concrete.
    75 BC
    Romans use a pozzolanic, hydraulic cement to build the theater at Pompeii and the Roman baths. The cement was a ground mix of lime and a volcanic ash containing silica and alumina.
    44 BC
    Palatine Hill (Latin: Palatium), the centermost of the 7 hills of Rome, one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome, Italy. It is some 70 meters high.
    25 BC
    Ancient harbor at Caesarea, Israel built by Herod the Great.

    Historical Timeline of Concrete

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